MathJax Documentation¶
MathJax is an opensource JavaScript display engine for LaTeX, MathML, and AsciiMath notation that works in all modern browsers.
What is MathJax?¶
MathJax is an opensource JavaScript display engine for LaTeX, MathML, and AsciiMath notation that works in all modern browsers. It was designed with the goal of consolidating the recent advances in web technologies into a single, definitive, mathontheweb platform supporting the major browsers and operating systems, including those on mobile devices. It requires no setup on the part of the user (no plugins to download or software to install), so the page author can write web documents that include mathematics and be confident that users will be able to view it naturally and easily. One simply includes MathJax and some mathematics in a web page, and MathJax does the rest.
MathJax uses webbased fonts to produce highquality typesetting that scales and prints at full resolution, unlike mathematics included as images. MathJax can be used with screen readers, providing accessibility for the visually impaired. With MathJax, mathematics is textbased rather than imagebased, and so it is available for search engines, meaning that your equations can be searchable, just like the text of your pages. MathJax allows page authors to write formulas using TeX and LaTeX notation, MathML (a World Wide Web Consortium standard for representing mathematics in XML format), or AsciiMath notation. MathJax will even convert TeX notation into MathML, so that it can be rendered more quickly by those browsers that support MathML natively, or so that you can copy and paste it into other programs.
MathJax is modular, so it loads components only when necessary, and can be extended to include new capabilities as needed. MathJax is highly configurable, allowing authors to customize it for the special requirements of their web sites. Finally, MathJax has a rich application programming interface (API) that can be used to make the mathematics on your web pages interactive and dynamic.
Getting Started¶
MathJax allows you to include mathematics in your web pages, either using LaTeX, MathML, or AsciiMath notation, and the mathematics will be processed using JavaScript to produce HTML, SVG, or MathML equations for viewing in any modern browser.
There are two ways to access MathJax: the easiest way is to use the
copy of MathJax available from a distributed network service such as
cdnjs.com
, but you can also download and install a copy of
MathJax on your own server, or use it locally on your hard disk
(with no need for network access). All three of these are described
below, with links to more detailed explanations. This page gives the
quickest and easiest ways to get MathJax up and running on your web
site, but you may want to read the details in order to customize the
setup for your pages.
Using a Content Delivery Network (CDN)¶
The easiest way to use MathJax is to link directly to a public installation available through a Content Distribution Network (CDN). When you use a CDN, there is no need to install MathJax yourself, and you can begin using MathJax right away. The CDN will automatically arrange for your readers to download MathJax files from a fast, nearby server.
To use MathJax from a CDN, you need to do two things:
 Link to MathJax in the web pages that are to include mathematics.
 Put mathematics into your web pages so that MathJax can display it.
There are many free CDN providers that provide copies of MathJax. Some provide “rolling releases”, i.e., links that update to the latest available version upon release. (Note that we also provide a means of obtaining the latest version automatically, described below.)
 cdnjs.com (recommended)
 jsdelivr.com [rolling]
 unpkg.com [rolling]
 rawgit.com
 gitcdn.xyz
 raw.githack.com
Warning
We retired our selfhosted CDN at cdn.mathjax.org
in April, 2017.
We recommend using cdnjs.com which uses the same provider.
The use of cdn.mathjax.org
was governed by its terms of service.
To jump start using cdnjs, you accomplish the first step by putting
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
</script>
into the <head>
block of your document. (It can also go in the
<body>
if necessary, but the head is to be preferred.) This will
load the version 2.7.5 of MathJax from the distributed server, and
configure it to recognize mathematics in both TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath notation,
and ask it to generate its output using HTML with CSS to display the
mathematics.
Warning
The TeXMMLAM_CHTML
configuration is one of the most general (and
thus largest) combined configuration files. We list it here because it
will quickly get you started using MathJax. It is probably not the most
efficient configuration for your purposes and other combined
configuration files are available. You can also
provide additional configuration parameters to tailor one of the combined
configurations to your needs or use our development tools to generate
your own combined configuration file.
More details about the configuration process can be found in the Loading and Configuring MathJax instructions.
If you use the code snippet given above, you will need to change the URL whenever MathJax is updated and the version changes (otherwise, you will remain at the version you linked to). It is also possible to have MathJax select its latest version for you. To do this, use
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/latest.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
</script>
into the <head>
block of your document. In this case, MathJax will
check to see what is the most current version available, and will load
that, regardless of the version you specified. That way, you can always
be sure you will ahve the most uptodate version of MathJax, and will not
have to modify your pages as new versions are released.
Note
To see how to enter mathematics in your web pages, see Putting mathematics in a web page below.
Installing Your Own Copy of MathJax¶
We recommend using a CDN service if you can, but you can also install MathJax on your own server, or locally on your own hard disk. To do so you will need to do the following things:
 Obtain a copy of MathJax and make it available on your server or hard disk.
 Configure MathJax to suit the needs of your site.
 Link MathJax into the web pages that are to include mathematics.
 Put mathematics into your web pages so that MathJax can display it.
These steps are described in more detail below.
Downloading and Installing MathJax¶
The MathJax source code is hosted on
GitHub.
To install MathJax on your own server, download
the latest distribution,
unpack the archive, and place the resulting MathJax folder onto your
web server at a convenient location where you can include it into your
web pages. For example, making MathJax
a toplevel directory on
your server would be one natural way to do this. That would let you
refer to the main MathJax file via the URL /MathJax/MathJax.js
from within any page on your server.
Once you have MathJax set up on your server, you can test it using the
files in the MathJax/test
directory. If you are putting MathJax
on a server, load them in your browser using their web addresses
rather than opening them locally (i.e., use an http://
URL rather
than a file://
URL). When you view the index.html
file, after
a few moments you should see a message indicating that MathJax appears
to be working. If not, check that the files have been transferred to
the server completely and that the permissions allow the server to
access the files and folders that are part of the MathJax directory.
(Be sure to verify the MathJax folder’s permissions as well.) Check
the server log files for any errors that pertain to the MathJax
installation; this may help locate problems in the permission or
locations of files.
Note
For more details (such as version control access) see the installation instructions.
Configuring your copy of MathJax¶
When you include MathJax into your web pages as described below, it
will load the file config/TeXMMLAM_CHTML.js
(i.e., the file
named TeXMMLAM_CHTML.js
in the config
folder of the
main MathJax
folder). This file preloads all the most
commonlyused components of MathJax, allowing it to process
mathematics that is in the TeX or LaTeX format, the AsciiMath format, or the MathML notation.
It will produce output in HTML (with CSS) to render the
mathematics.
There are a number of other prebuilt configuration files that you can
choose from as well, or you could use the config/default.js
file and
customize the settings yourself.
Note
The combined configuration files are described more fully in Common Configurations, and the configuration options are described in Configuration Options.
Linking your copy of MathJax into a web page¶
You can include MathJax in your web page by putting
<script type="text/javascript" async src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML"></script>
in your document’s <head>
block. Here, pathtoMathJax
should
be replaced by the URL for the main MathJax directory, so if you have
put the MathJax
directory at the top level of you server’s web
site, you could use
<script type="text/javascript" async src="/MathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML"></script>
to load MathJax in your page. For example, your page could look like
<html>
<head>
...
<script type="text/javascript" async src="/MathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML"></script>
</head>
<body>
...
</body>
</html>
Note
If you have installed MathJax on a server that is in a different domain from the one serving the page that loads MathJax, be sure to read the Notes About Shared Servers for more details. In that case, you may wish to consider using MathJax via a CDN rather than installing your own copy of MathJax.
Putting mathematics in a web page¶
To put mathematics in your web page, you can use TeX and LaTeX notation, MathML notation, AsciiMath notation, or a combination of all three within the same page; the MathJax configuration tells MathJax which you want to use, and how you plan to indicate the mathematics when you are using TeX/LaTeX or AsciiMath notation. The configuration file used in the examples above tells MathJax to look for three three formats (TeX, AsciiMath, and MathML) within your pages. Other configuration files tell MathJax to use only one of these input options or one of the other output options. These three formats are described in more detail below.
TeX and LaTeX input¶
Mathematics that is written in TeX or LaTeX format is indicated using math delimiters that surround the mathematics, telling MathJax what part of your page represents mathematics and what is normal text. There are two types of equations: ones that occur within a paragraph (inline mathematics), and larger equations that appear separated from the rest of the text on lines by themselves (displayed mathematics).
The default math delimiters are $$...$$
and \[...\]
for
displayed mathematics, and \(...\)
for inline mathematics. Note
in particular that the $...$
inline delimiters are not used
by default. That is because dollar signs appear too often in
nonmathematical settings, which could cause some text to be treated
as mathematics unexpectedly. For example, with singledollar
delimiters, “… the cost is $2.50 for the first one, and $2.00 for
each additional one …” would cause the phrase “2.50 for the first
one, and” to be treated as mathematics since it falls between dollar
signs. For this reason, if you want to use singledollars for inline
math mode, you must enable that explicitly in your configuration:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']]}
});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" async src="pathtomathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML"></script>
See the config/default.js
file, or the tex2jax configuration
options page, for additional configuration
parameters that you can specify for the tex2jax preprocessor,
which is the component of MathJax that identifies TeX notation within
the page. See the TeX and LaTeX page for
more on MathJax’s support for TeX, and in particular how to deal with
single dollar signs in your text when you have enabled single
dollarsign delimiters.
Here is a complete sample page containing TeX mathematics (also available in the test/sampletex.html file):
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>MathJax TeX Test Page</title>
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']]}});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML">
</script>
</head>
<body>
When $a \ne 0$, there are two solutions to \(ax^2 + bx + c = 0\) and they are
$$x = {b \pm \sqrt{b^24ac} \over 2a}.$$
</body>
</html>
Since the TeX notation is part of the text of the page, there are some caveats that you must keep in mind when you enter your mathematics. In particular, you need to be careful about the use of lessthan signs, since those are what the browser uses to indicate the start of a tag in HTML. Putting a space on both sides of the lessthan sign should be sufficient, but see TeX and LaTeX support for details.
If you are using MathJax within a blog, wiki, or other content management system, the markup language used by that system may interfere with the TeX notation used by MathJax. For example, if your blog uses Markdown notation for authoring your pages, the underscores used by TeX to indicate subscripts may be confused with the use of underscores by Markdown to indicate italics, and the two uses may prevent your mathematics from being displayed. See TeX and LaTeX support for some suggestions about how to deal with the problem.
There are a number of extensions for the TeX input processor that are
loaded by combined configuration files which include TeX
in their name
(e.g., TeXAMS_CHTML
). These include:
 TeX/AMSmath.js, which defines the AMS math environments and macros,
 TeX/AMSsymbols.js, which defines the macros for the symbols in the msam10 and msbm10 fonts,
 TeX/noErrors.js, which shows the original TeX code rather than an error message when there is a problem processing the TeX, and
 TeX/noUndefined.js, which prevents undefined macros from producing an error message, and instead shows the macro name in red.
Other extensions may be loaded automatically when needed.
Note
See TeX and LaTeX support for details on the other TeX extensions that are available.
MathML input¶
For mathematics written in MathML notation, you mark your
mathematics using standard <math>
tags, where <math
display="block">
represents displayed mathematics and <math
display="inline">
or just <math>
represents inline mathematics.
Note that even on old browsers this will work in HTML files, not just XHTML
files (MathJax works with both), and that the web page need not be served
with any special MIMEtype. However note that in HTML (as opposed to
XHTML), you should not include a namespace prefix for your <math>
tags; for example, you should not use <m:math>
except in an XHTML file
where you have tied the m
namespace to the MathML DTD by adding the
xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
attribute to your file’s
<html>
tag.
Although it is not required, it is recommended that you include the
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
attribute on all
<math>
tags in your document (and this is preferred to the use of
a namespace prefix like m:
above, since those are deprecated in
HTML5) in order to make your MathML work in the widest range of
situations.
Here is a complete sample page containing MathML mathematics (also available in the test/samplemml.html file):
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>MathJax MathML Test Page</title>
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=MML_CHTML">
</script>
</head>
<body>
<p>
When
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mi>a</mi><mo>≠</mo><mn>0</mn>
</math>,
there are two solutions to
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mi>a</mi><msup><mi>x</mi><mn>2</mn></msup>
<mo>+</mo> <mi>b</mi><mi>x</mi>
<mo>+</mo> <mi>c</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mn>0</mn>
</math>
and they are
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="block">
<mi>x</mi> <mo>=</mo>
<mrow>
<mfrac>
<mrow>
<mo>−</mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo>±</mo>
<msqrt>
<msup><mi>b</mi><mn>2</mn></msup>
<mo>−</mo>
<mn>4</mn><mi>a</mi><mi>c</mi>
</msqrt>
</mrow>
<mrow> <mn>2</mn><mi>a</mi> </mrow>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mtext>.</mtext>
</math>
</p>
</body>
</html>
When entering MathML notation in an HTML page (rather than an XHTML page), you should not use selfclosing tags, but should use explicit open and close tags for all your math elements. For example, you should use
<mspace width="5pt"></mspace>
rather than <mspace width="5pt" />
in an HTML document. If you
use the selfclosing form, some browsers will not build the math tree
properly, and MathJax will receive a damaged math structure, which
will not be rendered as the original notation would have been.
Typically, this will cause parts of your expression to not be
displayed. Unfortunately, there is nothing MathJax can do about that,
since the browser has incorrectly interpreted the tags long before
MathJax has a chance to work with them.
The component of MathJax that recognizes MathML notation within the
page is called the mml2jax extension, and it has only a few
configuration options; see the config/default.js
file or the
mml2jax configuration options page for more
details.
Note
See the MathML page for more on MathJax’s MathML support.
AsciiMath input¶
MathJax v2.0 introduced a new input format: AsciiMath notation by
incorporating ASCIIMathML.
By default, you mark mathematical expressions written in this form by
surrounding them in “backticks”, i.e., `...`
.
Here is a complete sample page containing AsciiMath notation (also available in the test/sampleasciimath.html file):
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>MathJax AsciiMath Test Page</title>
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=AM_CHTML"></script>
</head>
<body>
<p>When `a != 0`, there are two solutions to `ax^2 + bx + c = 0` and
they are</p>
<p style="textalign:center">
`x = (b + sqrt(b^24ac))/(2a) .`
</p>
</body>
</html>
The component of MathJax that recognizes asciimath notation within the
page is called the asciimath2jax extension, and it has only a few
configuration options; see the config/default.js
file or the
asciimath2jax configuration options page for more
details.
Note
See the AsciiMath support page for more on MathJax’s AsciiMath support.
Where to go from here?¶
If you have followed the instructions above, you should now have MathJax installed and configured on your web server, and you should be able to use it to write web pages that include mathematics. At this point, you can start making pages that contain mathematical content!
You could also read more about the details of how to customize MathJax.
If you are trying to use MathJax in blog or wiki software or in some other contentmanagement system, you might want to read about using MathJax in popular platforms.
If you are working on dynamic pages that include mathematics, you might want to read about the MathJax Application Programming Interface (its API), so you know how to include mathematics in your interactive pages.
If you are having trouble getting MathJax to work, you can read more about installing MathJax, or loading and configuring MathJax.
Finally, if you have questions or comments, or want to help support MathJax, you could visit the MathJax community forums or the MathJax bug tracker.
Installing and Testing MathJax¶
The easiest way to use MathJax is to link directly to the MathJax distributed network service (see Using a Content Delivery Network (CDN)). In that case, there is no need to install MathJax yourself, and you can begin using MathJax right away; skip this document on installation and go directly to Configuring MathJax.
MathJax can be loaded from a public web server or privately from your
hard drive or other local media. To use MathJax in either way, you
will need to obtain a copy of MathJax. There are several ways to do
this: via git
, svn
, npm
, composer
, bower
, or via a
prepackaged archive. We recommend git
or svn
, as it is easier
to keep your installation up to date with these tools.
Obtaining MathJax via Git¶
The easiest way to get MathJax and keep it up to date is to use the Git version control system to access our GitHub repository. Use the command
git clone https://github.com/mathjax/MathJax.git MathJax
to obtain and set up a copy of MathJax.
Whenever you want to update MathJax, you can now use
cd MathJax
git remote show origin
to check if there are updates to MathJax (this will print several lines of data, but the last line should tell you if your copy is up to date or out of date). If MathJax needs updating, use
cd MathJax
git pull origin
to update your copy of MathJax to the current release version. If you keep MathJax updated in this way, you will be sure that you have the latest bug fixes and new features as they become available.
This gets you the most recently released version of MathJax. Older releases are “tagged” in Git so that you can refer to them by name (which is the version number in most cases). Use
cd MathJax
git tag l
to see all tagged versions, and use
cd MathJax
git checkout <tag_name>
to checkout the indicated version of MathJax, where <tag_name>
is
the name of the tagged version you want to use. For example,
git checkout 2.7.0
would get you version 2.7.0 of MathJax, even though there are newer versions of MathJax available.
Each of the main releases also has a branch in which critical updates are applied (we try hard not to patch the stable releases, but sometimes there is a crucial change that needs to be made). If you want to use the patched version of a release, then check out the branch rather than the tag. Use
cd MathJax
git branch r
to get a list of the available branches. There are separate branches
for the main releases, but with latest
appended. These contain
all the patches for that particular release. You can check out one of
the branches just as you would a tagged copy. For example, the branch
for the 2.5 release is v2.5latest
. To get this
release, use
cd MathJax
git checkout v2.5latest
and to update it when changes occur, use
cd MathJax
git pull origin v2.5latest
One of the branches is named develop
; this branch includes all the
latest changes to MathJax. Although we try to make sure this version
is a stable and usable version of MathJax, it is under active
development, and at times it may be less stable than the “release”
version. If you want the most recent patches before they have been
formally released as a new numbered version, you can check out the
develop
branch.
Obtaining MathJax via SVN¶
If you are more comfortable with the subversion source control system, you may want
to use GitHub’s svn
service to obtain MathJax. If you want to get the
latest revision using svn
, use the command
svn checkout http://github.com/mathjax/MathJax/trunk MathJax
to obtain and set up a copy of MathJax.
Whenever you want to update MathJax, you can now use
cd MathJax
svn status u
to check if there are updates to MathJax. If MathJax needs updating, use
cd MathJax
svn update
to update your copy of MathJax to the current release version. If you keep MathJax updated in this way, you will be sure that you have the latest bug fixes and new features as they become available.
This gets you the most recently released version of MathJax. Older
releases are available in “branches” named by the version number;
e.g., v2.5latest
. If you prefer to use one of the older
releases, then use
svn checkout https://github.com/mathjax/MathJax/branches/[name] MathJax
where [name]
is replaced by the name of the branch you want to
check out. The branch names can be found on the
GitHub MathJax page under the
branches tab.
Obtaining MathJax via an archive¶
Release versions of MathJax are available in archive files from the MathJax GitHub page. The current version is available via the “clone or download” button, or you can use the “releases” tab to download an archive for an older version.
Current Version: MathJax2.7 (33.0MB)
Consult the change log for what’s new in version 2.7.
For previous versions, see the release page on GitHub or for quick access
 MathJax2.6 (34.3MB)
 MathJax2.5 (33.0MB)
 MathJax2.4 (32.6MB)
 MathJax2.3 (32.9MB)
 MathJax2.2 (17.0MB)
 MathJax2.1 (17.1MB)
 MathJax2.0 (17.6MB)
 MathJax1.1a (15.4MB)
 MathJax1.1 (16.4MB)
MathJax v1.0.1a
 To install MathJax v1.0.1a, you must download two files: MathJaxv1.0.1a.zip and MathJaxFontUpdate.zip. First install the MathJaxv1.01a.zip distribution. Then replace the
MathJax/fonts/HTMLCSS/TeX/otf
directory in the resulting MathJax installation with the otf directory contained in theMathJaxFontUpdate.zip
archive.
 To install MathJax v1.0.1a, you must download two files: MathJaxv1.0.1a.zip and MathJaxFontUpdate.zip. First install the MathJaxv1.01a.zip distribution. Then replace the
You should download the archive of the branch corresponding to the version
you need, then simply unzip it.
Once the MathJax directory is unpacked, you should move it to the
desired location on your server (or your hard disk, if you are using
it locally rather then through a web server). One natural location is
to put it at the top level of your web server’s hierarchy. That would
let you refer to the main MathJax file as /MathJax/MathJax.js
from
within any page on your server.
If a packaged release receives any important updates, then those
updates will be part of the branch for that version. To obtain the
patched version, use the Branches drop down menu (at the far left of
the menus within the page) to select the release branch that you want
(for example v2.1latest
), and then use the green “clone or
download” button toward the right of the page get the latest patched
version of that release (via its “Download ZIP” link). You can also
select any tagged release in the dropdown menu on the left (using the
“tags” tab at the top of the list) and the “clone or download” button
will download that version.
Obtaining MathJax via npm¶
Starting with version 2.6, it is possible to use npm to install MathJax. Assuming npm
is installed
on your system, just execute the following command:
npm install mathjax
Note
The distribution on npm
does not contain the PNG fonts
Obtaining MathJax via Composer¶
Starting with version 2.5, it is possible to use Composer to install MathJax. See the Composer documentation to get started.
Obtaining MathJax via Bower¶
Starting with version 2.3, it is possible to use Bower to install MathJax. Assuming Bower is installed on your system, just execute the following command:
bower install MathJax
For a slim copy without PNG fonts use
bower install components/MathJax
Testing your installation¶
Use the HTML files in the test
directory to see if your
installation is working properly:
test/
index.html # Tests default configuration
indeximages.html # Tests imagefont fallback display
sample.html # Sample page with lots of pretty equations
examples.html # Page with links to all sample pages
Open these files in your browser to see that they appear to be working
properly. If you have installed MathJax on a server, use the web
address for those files rather than opening them locally. When you
view the index.html
file, you should see (after a few moments) a
message that MathJax appears to be working. If not, you should check
that the files have been transferred to the server completely, and that
the permissions allow the server to access the files and folders that
are part of the MathJax directory (be sure to verify the MathJax
folder’s permissions as well). Checking the server logs may help
locate problems with the installation.
Firefox and local fonts¶
Firefox’s sameorigin security policy affects its ability to load
webbased fonts, as described above. This has implications not only
to crossdomain loading of MathJax, but also to using MathJax locally
from your hard disk. Firefox’s interpretation of the sameorigin
policy for local files is that the “same domain” for a page is the
directory where that page exists, or any of its subdirectories. So if
you use MathJax in a page with a file://
URL, and if MathJax is
loaded from a directory other than the one containing the original
page, then MathJax will not be able to access the webbased fonts in
Firefox. In that case, MathJax will fall back on image fonts to
display the mathematics.
In order for Firefox to be able to load the fonts properly for a local file, your MathJax installation must be in a subdirectory of the one containing the page that uses MathJax. This is an unfortunate restriction, but it is a limitiation imposed by Firefox’s security model that MathJax can not circumvent. Currently, this is not a problem for other browsers.
One solution to this problem is to install the MathJax fonts locally,
so that Firefox will not have to use webbased fonts in the first
place. To do that, either install the STIX fonts, or copy the fonts from
MathJax/fonts/HTMLCSS/TeX/otf
(or whichever of the webbased
fonts in the MathJax/fonts/HTMLCSS
directory you wish) into your
system’s fonts directory and restart your browser.
IE9 and remote fonts¶
IE9’s sameorigin policy affects its ability to load webbased fonts, as
described above. This has implications not ony to crossdomain loading of
MathJax, but also to the case where you view a local page (with a
file://
URL) that accesses MathJax from a remote site such as a
CDN service. In this case, IE9 does not honor the
AccessControlAllowOrigin
setting of the remote server (as it would
if the web page came from an http://
URL), and so it never allows the
font to be accessed.
One solution to this problem is to install the MathJax fonts locally so that MathJax doesn’t have to use webbased fonts in the first place. Your best bet is to install the STIX fonts on your system.
Loading and Configuring MathJax¶
You load MathJax into a web page by including its main JavaScript file
into the page. That is done via a <script>
tag that links to the
MathJax.js
file. To do that, place the following line in the <head>
section of your document:
<script type="text/javascript" src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js"></script>
where pathtoMathJax
is replaced by the URL of the copy of MathJax
that you are loading. For example, if you are using cdnjs as a
distributed network service, the tag might be
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js">
</script>
If you have installed MathJax yourself, pathtoMathJax
will be the
location of MathJax on your server, or (if you are using MathJax locally
rather than through a server) the location of that directory on your hard
disk. For example, if the MathJax directory is at the top level of your
web server’s directory hierarchy, you might use
<script type="text/javascript" src="/MathJax/MathJax.js"></script>
to load MathJax.
If you install MathJax on a server in a domain that is different from the one containing the page that will load MathJax, then there are issues involved in doing so that you need to take into consideration. See the Notes About Shared Servers for more details.
When you load MathJax, it is common to request a specific configuration file as discussed in the section on Using a Configuration File below, and in more detail in the Common Configurations section. A typical invocation of MathJax would be
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTML">
</script>
which loads MathJax with a configuration file that includes everything you need in order to enter mathematics in either TeX, LaTeX, or MathML notation, and produces output using HTMLwithCSS otherwise. If you don’t load an explicit configuration file, you will need to include an inline configuration block in order to tell MathJax how to read and display the mathematics on your pages. See the section below on Using Inline Configuration Options for details.
It is best to load MathJax in the document’s <head>
block, but it
is also possible to load MathJax into the <body>
section, if
needed. If you do this, load it as early as possible, as
MathJax will begin to load its components as soon as it is included in
the page, and that will help speed up the processing of the
mathematics on your page. MathJax does expect there to be a
<head>
section to the document, however, so be sure there is one
if you are loading MathJax in the <body>
.
It is also possible to load MathJax dynamically after the page has been prepared, for example, via a GreaseMonkey script, or using a specially prepared bookmarklet. This is an advanced topic, however; see Loading MathJax Dynamically for more details.
Loading MathJax from a CDN¶
MathJax is available as a web service from various free CDN providers, so you can obtain MathJax from there without needing to install it on your own server.
Warning
We retired our selfhosted CDN at cdn.mathjax.org
in April, 2017.
We recommend using cdnjs.com which uses the same provider.
The use of cdn.mathjax.org
was governed by its terms of service.
A CDN is part of a distributed “cloud” network, so it is handled by servers around the world. That means that you should get access to a server geographically near you, for a fast, reliable connection. Most CDN services offer several versions of MathJax. For example, cdnjs hosts all tagged versions since v1.1 so you can link to the version you prefer.
The URL that you use to obtain MathJax determines the version that you get. For example, cdnjs uses a URL that includes the version tag so you can load the current version via
https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js # the 2.7.5 release
Prereleases are also available on cdnjs.
When you use a specific version number, you will always get that version regardless of whether newer versions of MathJax are available. That means you will need to manually update your web pages to refer to the newer version when one is available.
Some CDN providers on our list offer a “rolling release” link, i.e, a link that updates to each newer version of MathJax upon release. For most of the others, if you would like to always use the latest version of MathJax, you can use
https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/latest.js # the latest release
and MathJax will look up the latest version and load that (regardless of the version number referenced in your URL). That means you will not have to update your pages as new versions are released, but it also means that if there are any changes that are not backward compatible, something on your page may no longer work as it used to.
Note
If you wish to use the development version of
MathJax, you will need to install your own copy; see Installing
and Testing MathJax for information on how to do that.
Alternatively, you can load the develop
branch via rawgit.com <https://rawgit.com>.
Note
If you wish to use a CDN but use your own configuration file rather than one of the predefined ones, see the information at the end of the Using a Local Configuration File section below.
Configuring MathJax¶
There are two ways to configure MathJax: via a configuration file, or by including configuration commands within the web page itself. These can be used independently, or in combination. For example, you can load a main predefined configuration file, but include inline commands to adjust the configuration to your needs.
Note that you must use at least one of these two forms of configuration.
Unlike MathJax v1.0, version 1.1 and higher does not load a default
configuration file. If you have been using version 1.0’s
config/MathJax.js
for your configuration, you will need to load that
configuration file explicitly via a config
parameter, as described
below.
Using a configuration file¶
The easiest way to configure MathJax is to use a configuration file.
MathJax comes with a number of predefined and precombined configuration files,
which are stored in the MathJax/config
directory.
The contents of these
files are explained in more detail in the Common Configurations section.
Considerations for using combined configuration files¶
Usually, MathJax loads its components only when they are needed, but each component will require a separate file to be loaded, and that can cause delays before the mathematics is displayed. The combined configuration files load the majority of the needed files all as one large file, reducing the number of network requests that are needed. That means you will probably be getting the components that MathJax needs faster than you would without the combined file, but you may be loading components that are never actually used; that is the trade off.
Each of the combined configuration files comes in two flavors: the
ones listed in the Common Configurations section, which only configure the output
processors but don’t include their main code, and a “full” version, that
also includes the complete output processors. For example, with
TeXAMS_CHTML.js
and TeXAMS_CHTMLfull.js
, the latter
includes the complete CommonHTML output processor. The “full”
configuration files are substantially larger (on the order of 70KB
more), so you need to decide whether it is worth loading the full
configuration for your pages.
If most of your pages include mathematics, then it is to your advantage to load the full version, but if you are including MathJax in a theme file for a blog or wiki that only includes mathematics occasionally, then perhaps it is better to use the standard configuration instead, in which case the output processors are only loaded when they are actually needed, saving the loading of 70KB for pages that don’t. Of course, if your server is configured to compress the files it sends, the difference between the two is considerably reduced. Furthermore, most browsers will cache the JavaScript they receive, so the download cost should only occur on the first page a user views, so it may be best to use the “full” version after all. Note, however, that older mobile devices sometimes have limits on the size of files that they cache, so they may be forced to download the configuration on every page. You need to keep these issues in mind as you decide on which configuration to use.
To load a configuration file, use config=filename
(where
filename
is one of the names listed in Common Configurations without the .js
) as a parameter to the
URL of the MathJax.js
file. For example
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTML">
</script>
loads the config/TeXAMSMML_CHTML.js
configuration file from the
/mathjax
directry on your server.
You can include more than one configuration file by separating them with
commas. For example, if you have a locally defined configuration file
called MathJax/config/local/local.js
that modifies the settings for the
TeXAMS_HML
configuration, defines some new TeX macros, and so on, you
can use
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML,local/local">
</script>
to first load the main configuration, then the local modifications.
Using a local configuration file with a CDN¶
You can load MathJax from a CDN provider but still use a
configuration from your own local server. For example, suppose you
have a configuration file called local.js
on your own server, in a
directory called MathJax/config/local
. Then you can load MathJax
from a CDN and still use your configuration file as follows:
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_HTML,http://myserver.com/MathJax/config/local/local.js">
</script>
Because the local.js
file is not on the CDN server, you must give
the complete URL to the local configuration file. Note that you also
have to edit the loadComplete()
call that is at the bottom of
the configuration file to change it from
[MathJax]/config/local/local.js
to the complete URL as you give it
in the config
parameter. In the example above, it would be
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("http://myserver.com/MathJax/config/local/local.js");
That is because the [MathJax]
in the original URL refers to the
root directory where MathJax.js
was loaded, which is on the CDN,
not your local server, and so you need to tell MathJax the actual
location of your configuration file.
Using inline configuration options¶
The second way to configure MathJax is through inline configuration,
which puts the configuration options within the web page itself. The use
of inline configuration with MathJax requires two separate <script>
tags: one for specifying the configuration settings and one for loading of
MathJax. Because MathJax starts its configuration process as soon as it is
loaded, the configuration script must come before the script tag that
loads MathJax.js
itself. You do this by including a <script>
with
type="text/xmathjaxconfig"
whose content will be run when
MathJax performs its configuration. Generally, this script will
include a MathJax.Hub.Config()
call to perform MathJax
configuration, but it can also include other MathJax commands, such as
registering signal actions, or any JavaScript commands that you want.
You can have as many such script tags as you need, and MathJax will
process them in the order in which they appear in the document.
For instance,
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
extensions: ["tex2jax.js"],
jax: ["input/TeX", "output/HTMLCSS"],
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ["\\(","\\)"] ],
displayMath: [ ['$$','$$'], ["\\[","\\]"] ],
processEscapes: true
},
"HTMLCSS": { fonts: ["TeX"] }
});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js">
</script>
This example includes the tex2jax preprocessor and configures it to use
both the standard TeX and LaTeX math delimiters. It uses
the TeX input processor and the HTMLCSS output processor, and forces the
HTMLCSS processor to use the TeX fonts rather than other locally installed
fonts (e.g., STIX fonts). See the configuration options section (or the comments in the config/default.js
file) for more information about the configuration options that you can
include in the MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. This
configuration does not load any predefined configuration file.
Note that you can combine inline configuration with filebased
configuration; simply include text/xmathjaxconfig
scripts as above,
but also include config=filename
when you load the MathJax.js
file. For example, the tex2jax preprocessor does not enable the TeX
singledollar inline math delimiters by default. You can load one of the
predefined configuration files that includes the TeX preprocessor, and use
an inline configuration block to enable the singledollar signs, as
in this example:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ["\\(","\\)"] ],
processEscapes: true
}
});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_HTML">
</script>
Using plain JavaScript¶
Starting with MathJax version 2.3, it is possible to set window.MathJax
to
a configuration object in any JavaScript code before MathJax’s startup.
MathJax will then use that object for its initial configuration. For instance
the previous example becomes:
<script type="text/javascript">
window.MathJax = {
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ["\\(","\\)"] ],
processEscapes: true
}
};
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_HTML">
</script>
Similarly to scripts with the custom type text/xmathjaxconfig
, you can
enter arbitrary code to execute during the configuration phase. You just
need to put that code in an AuthorInit
function:
<script type="text/javascript">
window.MathJax = {
AuthorInit: function () {
... initialization code ...
}
};
</script>
Note that this initialization code runs before the
MathJax.Hub.queue
is set up, so if you want to queue additional
actions during the AuthorInit function, use
<script type="text/javascript">
window.MathJax = {
AuthorInit: function () {
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("Begin",function () {
MathJax.Hub.Queue(
... your actions here ...
)
});
}
};
</script>
Configuring MathJax after it is loaded¶
Because MathJax begins its configuration process immediately after it is
loaded (so that it can start loading files as quickly as it can), the
configuration blocks for MathJax must come before MathJax.js
is loaded,
so they will be available to MathJax when it starts up. There are
situations, however, when you might want to put off configuring MathJax
until later in the page.
One such situation is when you have a site that loads MathJax as part of a
theme or template, but want to be able to modify the configuration on
specific pages of the site. To accomplish this, you need to ask MathJax
to delay its startup configuration until some later time. MathJax uses
the delayStartupUntil
parameter to control the timing of the startup
sequence. By default, it is set to none
, meaning there is no delay
and MathJax starts configuration right away.
You can set delayStartupUntil=onload
in order to prevent MathJax from
continuing its startup process until the page’s onLoad handler fires. This
allows MathJax to find the text/xmathjaxconfig
blocks that occur
anywhere on the page, not just the ones that appear above the <script>
that loads MathJax.js
. It also means that MathJax will not begin
loading any of the files that it needs until then as well, which may delay
the displaying of your mathematics, since the onLoad handler doesn’t
execute until all the images and other media are available. (If you have
used a combined configuration file, however, it already includes all the
main files that MathJax needs, so there is not much loss in delaying the
startup.)
You can set delayStartupUntil=configured
in order to delay the
startup configuration until the MathJax.Hub.Configured()
method is called. This allows you to delay startup until later on the
page, but then restart the MathJax configuration process as soon as
possible rather than waiting for the entire page to load. For
example, you could use
<script type="text/javascript"
src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMSMML_HTMLorMML&delayStartupUntil=configured">
</script>
in your theme’s header file, and
<script type="text/javascript">
MathJax.Hub.Configured()
</script>
in its footer, so that MathJax will delay setting up until the footer
is reached, but will not have to wait until images and other files are
loaded. In this way, if you have text/xmathjaxconfig
script
tags within the main body of the document, MathJax will read and
process those before continuing its startup. In this way you can use
a default configuration that can be modified on a pagebypage basis.
Note that MathJax.Hub.Configured()
is not called by MathJax;
you must make that call somewhere within the page yourself after the
configuration blocks are set up. If you do not execute this function,
MathJax will not process any of the math on the page.
Additional query string options¶
MathJax will check the query string for several other parameters (beyond the config
and delayStartupUntil
parameter).
locale=...
(e.g.,locale=fr
) determines the localization for the MathJax Menu.noContrib
disables the[Contrib]
prefix path for loading thirdparty extensions from the (retired) MathJax CDN.
noDOMContentEvent
(obsolete) provided a work around for using the
DOMContentLoaded
event to start MathJax’s processing phase
NoMathPlayer
(obsolete) prevents MathJax from trying to use MathPlayer even if MathPlayer is available.
Details of the MathJax configuration process¶
Since there are a number of different ways to configure MathJax, it is important to know how they interact. The configuration actions are the following:
 Execute
AuthorInit()
from inlineMathJax = {...}
.  Process any configuration file explicitly specified as a script
parameter via
config=
.  Perform author configuration from inline
MathJax = {...}
 Process the inline script body (deprecated), if present.
 If delayed startup is requested, wait for the indicated signal.
 Process
text/xmathjaxconfig
config blocks.  Process any config files queued in the configuration’s config array by earlier config code.
Note that text/xmathjaxconfig
script blocks must either precede
the MathJax.js
script element, or you must request a delayed
startup. Otherwise, blocks that follow the MathJax.js
script
element may or may not be available when MathJax runs, and
browserdependent erratic behavior will result. Similarly,
window.MathJax
must be created before MathJax.js
is loaded.
If you set the MathJax
variable afterward, you may disable
MathJax entirely!
Combined Configurations¶
MathJax comes with a number of predefined and precompiled configuration files
in the MathJax/config
directory. The default.js
file contains nearly
all the possible configuration options together with comments explaining them,
so you can use that file to customize MathJax to your needs. Simply load
it via
<script type="text/javascript" src="pathtoMathJax/MathJax.js?config=default"></script>
where pathtoMathJax
is the URL to the MathJax directory on your
server or hard disk. If you are using MathJax from a CDN, you can
view the contents of default.js as a
reference, but you will not be able to edit the CDN copy. It is
possible to use the CDN copy of MathJax with your own configuration
file, however; see Using a Local Configuration File with the CDN for details.
The remaining files in the MathJax/config
directory are
combined configuration files that include not just configuration
parameters but also the files that MathJax would need to load for
those configurations; you can browse the directory on Github. Using one of these
means MathJax will have to load fewer files, and since each file access requires
establishing connections over the network, it can be faster to load one larger
file than several smaller ones. See Loading and Configuring MathJax for more details about how to load configurations, and how
to modify the parameters for a configuration file.
The following sections describe the contents of the combined configuration
files. Each comes in two flavors: a standard version and a “full” version.
The standard version simply defines the output processor(s) that are part
of the configuration, but doesn’t load the code that implements the output
processor. The full version loads the complete output processors, so
everything that MathJax needs for the page should be loaded up front, and
there will be no delay once the page is ready to be processed. To obtain
the “full” version, add full
to the end of the configuration file
name.
The TeXMMLAM_CHTML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is one of the most general of the predefined configurations. It loads all the main MathJax components, including the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath preprocessors and input processors, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the CommonHTML output processor definitions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","input/AsciiMath","output/CommonHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js","AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath input jax main code (not just the definition files), as well as the toMathML extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full version also loads the CommonHTML output jax main code, plus the CommonHTML mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See the asciimath2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the
AsciiMath input jax configuration section for
options that control the AsciiMath input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on CommonHTML output processor.
The TeXMMLAM_HTMLorMML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is one of the most general of the predefined configurations. It loads all the main MathJax components, including the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath preprocessors and input processors, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, both the native MathML and HTMLCSS output processor definitions, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","input/AsciiMath","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath input jax main code (not just the definition files), as well as the toMathML extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full version also loads the HTMLCSS, PreviewHTML, and NativeMML output jax main code, plus the HTMLCSS mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See the asciimath2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the
AsciiMath input jax configuration section for
options that control the AsciiMath input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the NativeMML and HTMLCSS output processors. See the
MMLorHTML configuration section for
details on the options that control the MMLorHTML
configuration.
The TeXMMLAM_SVG
configuration file¶
This configuration file is one of the most general of the predefined configurations. It loads all the main MathJax components, including the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath preprocessors and input processors, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the SVG output processor, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","input/AsciiMath","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX, MathML, and AsciiMath input jax main code (not just the definition files), as well as the toMathML extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full version also loads the SVG and PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the SVG mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See the asciimath2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the
AsciiMath input jax configuration section for
options that control the AsciiMath input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the SVG output processor.
The TeXAMSMML_HTMLorMML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is a commonly used predefined configuration. It loads the most commonly used MathJax components, including the TeX and MathML preprocessors and input processors, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, both the native MathML and HTMLwithCSS output processor definitions, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX and MathML input
jax main code (not just the definition files), as well as the
toMathML extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the
MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the HTMLCSS,
PreviewHTML, and NativeMML output jax main code, plus the HTMLCSS
mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the NativeMML and HTMLCSS output processors. See the
MMLorHTML configuration section for
details on the options that control the MMLorHTML
configuration.
The TeXAMS_CHTML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use TeX format for their mathematics, and that want the output to be as close to TeX output as possible. This configuration uses the CommonHTML output jax. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select any other output jax if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for TeX input and output, including the tex2jax preprocessor and TeX input jax, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the CommonHTML output, the AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","output/CommonHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the CommonHTML output jax main code, plus the
CommonHTML mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the CommonHTML output processor.
The TeXAMS_SVG
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use TeX format for their mathematics, and that want the output to be as close to TeX output as possible. This uses the SVG output jax. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select another output jax if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for TeX input and output, including the tex2jax preprocessor and TeX input jax, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the SVG output processor, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","output/SVG", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the SVG and PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the
SVG mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the SVG output processor.
The TeXAMS_HTML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use TeX format for their mathematics, and that want the output to be as close to TeX output as possible. This uses the HTMLCSS output jax (even when the user’s browser understands MathML). The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the NativeMML output jax if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for TeX input and output, including the tex2jax preprocessor and TeX input jax, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the HTMLwithCSS output processor definition, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","output/HTMLCSS", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the HTMLCSS and PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the
HTMLCSS mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the HTMLCSS output processor.
The MML_CHTML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use MathML format for their mathematics. It will use the CommonHTML output. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select any other output format if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for MathML input and output, including the mml2jax preprocessor and MathML input jax, the CommonHTML output processor definition files, the AssistiveMML extension, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/MathML", "output/CommonHTML"],
extensions: ["mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the MathML input jax main
code (not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension,
which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu.
The full
version also loads the CommonHTML output
jax main code, plus the CommonHTML mtable extension, which is normally
loaded on demand.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor. See MathJax Output Formats for more information on the CommonHTML output processor.
The MML_SVG
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use MathML format for their mathematics. It will use the SVG output. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the other output formats if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for MathML input and output, including the mml2jax preprocessor and MathML input jax, the SVG output processor definition files, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/MathML","output/SVG", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the MathML input jax main
code (not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension,
which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu.
The full
version also loads the SVG and PreviewHTML output
jax main code files, plus the SVG mtable extension, which is normally
loaded on demand.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the SVG output processor.
The MML_HTMLorMML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use MathML format for their mathematics. It will use MathML output in browsers where that is supported well, and HTMLCSS output otherwise. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the other output format if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for MathML input and output, including the mml2jax preprocessor and MathML input jax, the NativeMML and HTMLCSS output processor definition files, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/MathML","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the MathML input jax main
code (not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension,
which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu.
The full
version also loads the HTMLCSS, PreviewHTML, and NativeMML output
jax main code files, plus the HTMLCSS mtable extension, which is normally
loaded on demand.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the NativeMML and HTMLCSS output processors. See the
MMLorHTML configuration section for
details on the options that control the MMLorHTML
configuration.
The AM_CHTML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use AsciiMath format for their mathematics. It will use CommonHTML output. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the other output formats if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for AsciiMath input and output, including the asciimath2jax preprocessor and AsciiMath input jax, the CommonHTML output processor definition files, the AssistiveMML extension, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/AsciiMath","output/CommonHTML"],
extensions: ["asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js","AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the CommonHTML output jax main code, plus the
CommonHTML mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the asciimath2jax configuration
section for other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the AsciiMath input jax configuration section for options that control the AsciiMath
input processor. See MathJax Output Formats
for more information on the CommonHTML output processors.
The AM_SVG
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use AsciiMath format for their mathematics. It will use SVG output. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the other output formats if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for AsciiMath input and output, including the asciimath2jax preprocessor and AsciiMath input jax, the CommonHTML output processor definition files, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/AsciiMath","output/SVG", "output/PreviewHTML",
extensions: ["asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js","AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the SVG and PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the
SVG mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the asciimath2jax configuration
section for other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the AsciiMath input jax configuration section for options that control the AsciiMath
input processor. See MathJax Output Formats
for more information on the CommonHTML output processors.
The AM_HTMLorMML
configuration file¶
This configuration file is for sites that only use AsciiMath format for their mathematics. It will use MathML output in browsers where that is supported well, and HTMLCSS output otherwise. The user can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select the other output format if they desire.
This file includes all the important MathJax components for AsciiMath input and output, including the asciimath2jax preprocessor and AsciiMath input jax, the NativeMML and HTMLCSS output processor definition files, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/AsciiMath","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["asciimath2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"]
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax and the TeX input jax main code
(not just the definition file), as well as the toMathML extension, which
is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the HTMLCSS and PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the
HTMLCSS mtable extension, which is normally loaded on demand.
See the asciimath2jax configuration
section for other configuration options for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, and the AsciiMath input jax configuration section for options that control the AsciiMath
input processor. See MathJax Output Formats
for more information on the HTMLCSS and NativeMML output processors.
See the MMLorHTML configuration section
for details on the options that control the MMLorHTML
configuration.
The TeXAMSMML_SVG
configuration file¶
This configuration file is the same as TeXAMSMML_HTMLorMML except that it uses the SVG output renderer rather than the NativeMML or HTMLCSS ones. It loads all the main MathJax components, including the TeX and MathML preprocessors and input processors, the AMSmath, AMSsymbols, noErrors, and noUndefined TeX extensions, the SVG output processor definitions, the fastpreview and AssistiveMML extensions, and the MathMenu and MathZoom extensions. It is equivalent to the following configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","output/SVG", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
}
});
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX and MathML input
jax main code (not just the definition files), as well as the
toMathML extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the
MathJax contextual menu. The full
version also loads the SVG and
PreviewHTML output jax main code, plus the SVG mtable extension, which
is normally loaded on demand.
See the tex2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the tex2jax
preprocessor, and the
TeX input jax configuration section for options
that control the TeX input processor.
See the mml2jax configuration section for
other configuration options for the mml2jax
preprocessor, and the
MathML input jax configuration section for
options that control the MathML input processor.
See MathJax Output Formats for more
information on the SVG output processor.
The Accessible
configuration file [Deprecated]¶
This configuration file is essentially the same as
TeXAMSMML_HTMLorMML
except that it includes options that are
designed for assistive technology, particularly for those with visual
challenges.
Warning
This file is deprecated since the controls that make MathJax work with screen readers are now available in the MathJax contextual menu and the AssistiveMML extension, and so there is no need to set them in the configuration file any longer. So you can use any of the other predefined configurations and readers with special needs should be able to change the MathJax settings themselves to be appropriate for their software.
The Accessible configuration is equivalent to the following:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
config: ["MMLorHTML.js"],
jax: ["input/TeX","input/MathML","output/HTMLCSS","output/NativeMML", "output/PreviewHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","mml2jax.js","MathMenu.js","MathZoom.js", "fastpreview.js", "AssistiveMML.js", "a11y/accessibilitymenu.js"],
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js","AMSsymbols.js","noErrors.js","noUndefined.js"]
},
menuSettings: {
zoom: "DoubleClick",
mpContext: true,
mpMouse: true
},
errorSettings: { message: ["[Math Error]"] }
});
This turns off the MathJax contextual menu for IE when MathPlayer is active, and passes mouse events on to MathPlayer to allow screen readers full access to MathPlayer. It also sets the zoom trigger to doubleclick, so that readers can see a larger version of the mathematics by doubleclicking on any equation.
In addition, it loads the mml Element Jax, the TeX and MathML input jax
main code (not just the definition files), as well as the toMathML
extension, which is used by the Show Source option in the MathJax
contextual menu. The full
version also loads the HTMLCSS, CommomHTML,
and NativeMML output jax main code, plus the HTMLCSS mtable extension, which
is normally loaded on demand.
MathJax TeX and LaTeX Support¶
The support for TeX and LaTeX in MathJax consists of two
parts: the tex2jax preprocessor, and the TeX input processor. The
first of these looks for mathematics within your web page (indicated by
math delimiters like $$...$$
) and marks the mathematics for later
processing by MathJax. The TeX input processor is what converts the TeX
notation into MathJax’s internal format, where one of MathJax’s output
processors then displays it in the web page.
The tex2jax preprocessor can be configured to look for whatever markers you want to use for your math delimiters. See the tex2jax configuration options section for details on how to customize the action of tex2jax.
The TeX input processor handles conversion of your mathematical notation into MathJax’s internal format (which is essentially MathML), and so acts as a TeX to MathML converter. The TeX input processor has few configuration options (see the TeX options section for details), but it can also be customized through the use of extensions that define additional functionality (see the TeX and LaTeX extensions below).
Differences¶
Since MathJax renders for the web and TeX is a print layout engine, there are natural limitations of which parts of TeX can be supported in a reasonable way. Accordingly, there are several differences between “real” TeX/LaTeX systems and MathJax’s TeX Input.
First and foremost, the TeX input processor implements only the mathmode
macros of TeX and LaTeX, not the textmode macros. MathJax expects
that you will use standard HTML tags to handle formatting the text of
your page; it only handles the mathematics. So, for example, MathJax
does not implement \emph
or
\begin{enumerate}...\end{enumerate}
or other textmode macros or
environments. You must use HTML to handle such formatting tasks. If
you need a LaTeXtoHTML converter, you should consider other options.
There are two exception to this rule. First, MathJax supports the \ref
macro outside of mathmode. Second, MathJax supports some macros that
add text within mathmode (such as \text{}
) as well as $...$
within such macros (to switch back into mathmode) and \$
to escape.
Second, some features in MathJax might be necessarily limited.
For example, MathJax only implements a limited subset of the array
environment’s preamble, i.e., only the l
, r
, c
, and

characters alongside :
for dashed lines; everything else
is ignored.
Note
If you are not familiar with TeX/LaTeX, a good starting point is the LaTeX Wiki book.
TeX and LaTeX math delimiters¶
By default, the tex2jax preprocessor defines the LaTeX math delimiters,
which are \(...\)
for inline math, and \[...\]
for displayed
equations. It also defines the TeX delimiters $$...$$
for displayed
equations, but it does not define $...$
as inline math
delimiters. That is because dollar signs appear too often in
nonmathematical settings, which could cause some text to be treated
as mathematics unexpectedly. For example, with singledollar
delimiters, “… the cost is $2.50 for the first one, and $2.00 for
each additional one …” would cause the phrase “2.50 for the first
one, and” to be treated as mathematics since it falls between dollar
signs. For this reason, if you want to use singledollars for inline
math mode, you must enable that explicitly in your configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']],
processEscapes: true
}
});
Note that if you do this, you may want to also set processEscapes
to
true
, as in the example above, so that you can use \$
to prevent a
dollar sign from being treated as a math delimiter within the text of your
web page. (Note that within TeX mathematics, \$
always has this
meaning; processEscapes
only affects the treatment of the opening
math delimiter.)
Note that, as opposed to true LaTeX, MathJax processes all environments
when wrapped inside math delimiters. By defaut, MathJax will
also render all environments outside of delimiters; this can be controlled
via the processEnvironments
option in the tex2jax configuration
options.
See the config/default.js
file, or the tex2jax configuration
options page, for additional configuration
parameters that you can specify for the tex2jax preprocessor,
which is the component of MathJax that identifies TeX notation within
the page.
TeX and LaTeX in HTML documents¶
Keep in mind that your mathematics is part of an HTML document, so you
need to be aware of the special characters used by HTML as part of its
markup. There cannot be HTML tags within the math delimiters (other
than <br>
) as TeXformatted math does not include HTML tags.
Also, since the mathematics is initially given as text on the page,
you need to be careful that your mathematics doesn’t look like HTML
tags to the browser (which parses the page before MathJax gets to see
it). In particular, that means that you have to be careful about
things like lessthan and greaterthan signs (<
and >
), and
ampersands (&
), which have special meaning to the browsers. For
example,
... when $x<y$ we have ...
will cause a problem, because the browser will think <y
is the
beginning of a tag named y
(even though there is no such tag in
HTML). When this happens, the browser will think the tag continues up
to the next >
in the document (typically the end of the next
actual tag in the HTML file), and you may notice that you are missing
part of the text of the document. In the example above, the “we
have ...
” will not be displayed because the browser thinks it is
part of the tag starting at <y
. This is one indication you can
use to spot this problem; it is a common error and should be avoided.
Usually, it is sufficient to simply put spaces around these symbols to cause the browser to avoid them, so
... when $x < y$ we have ...
should work. Alternatively, you can use the HTML entities <
,
>
and &
to encode these characters so that the browser
will not interpret them, but MathJax will. E.g.,
... when $x < y$ we have ...
Finally, there are \lt
and \gt
macros defined to make it
easier to enter <
and >
using TeXlike syntax:
... when $x \lt y$ we have ...
Keep in mind that the browser interprets your text before MathJax does.
Another source of difficulty is when MathJax is used in content
management systems that have their own document processing commands
that are interpreted before the HTML page is created. For example,
many blogs and wikis use formats like Markdown to allow you to
create the content of your pages. In Markdown, the underscore is used
to indicate italics, and this usage will conflict with MathJax’s use
of the underscore to indicate a subscript. Since Markdown is applied
to the page first, it will convert your subscript markers into
italics (inserting <i>
or <em>
tags into your mathematics, which will
cause MathJax to ignore the math).
Such systems need to be told not to modify the mathematics that appears between math delimiters. That usually involves modifying the contentmanagement system itself, which is beyond the means of most page authors. If you are lucky, someone else will already have done this for you, and you can find a MathJax plugin for your system on the MathJaxInUse page.
If there is no plugin for your system, or if it doesn’t handle the
subtleties of isolating the mathematics from the other markup that it
supports, then you may have to “trick” it into leaving your
mathematics untouched. Most contentmanagement systems provide some
means of indicating text that should not be modified (“verbatim”
text), often for giving code snippets for computer languages.
You may be use that to enclose your mathematics so that the system
leaves it unchanged and MathJax can process it. For example, in
Markdown, the backtick (`
) is used to mark verbatim text, so
... we have `\(x_1 = 132\)` and `\(x_2 = 370\)` and so ...
may be able to protect the underscores from being processed by Markdown.
Some contentmanagement systems use the backslash (\
) as a special
character for “escaping” other characters, but TeX uses this character
to indicate a macro name. In such systems, you may have to double the
backslashes in order to obtain a single backslash in your HTML page.
For example, you may have to do
\\begin{array}{cc}
a & b \\\\
c & c
\\end{array}
to get an array with the four entries a, b, c, and d. Note in
particular that if you want \\
you will have to double both
backslashes, giving \\\\
.
Finally, if you have enabled single dollarsigns as math delimiters,
and you want to include a literal dollar sign in your web page (one
that doesn’t represent a math delimiter), you will need to prevent
MathJax from using it as a math delimiter. If you also enable the
processEscapes
configuration parameter, then you can use \$
in
the text of your page to get a dollar sign (without the backslash) in
the end. Alternatively, you use something like
<span>$</span>
to isolate the dollar sign so that
MathJax will not use it as a delimiter.
Defining TeX macros¶
You can use the \def
, \newcommand
, \renewcommand
,
\newenvironment
, \renewenvironment
, and \let
commands to
create your own macros and environments. Unlike actual TeX, however,
in order for MathJax to process such definitions, they must be
enclosed in math delimiters (since MathJax only processes macros in
mathmode). For example
\(
\def\RR{{\bf R}}
\def\bold#1{{\bf #1}}
\)
would define \RR
to produce a boldfaced “R”, and \bold{...}
to put its argument into bold face. Both definitions would be
available throughout the rest of the page.
You can include macro definitions in the Macros section of the TeX blocks of your configuration, but they must be represented as JavaScript objects. For example, the two macros above can be predefined in the configuration by
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: {
Macros: {
RR: "{\\bf R}",
bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1]
}
}
});
Here you give the macro as a name:value pair, where the name is the name of the control sequence (without the backslash) that you are defining, and value is either the replacement string for the macro (when there are no arguments) or an array consisting of the replacement string followed by the number of arguments for the macro and, optionally, default values for optional arguments.
Note that the replacement string is given as a JavaScript string literal, and the backslash has special meaning in JavaScript strings. So to get an actual backslash in the string you must double it, as in the examples above.
If you have many such definitions that you want to use on more than
one page, you could put them into a configuration file that you can
load along with the main configuration file. For example, you could
create a file in MathJax/config/local
called local.js
that
contains your macro definitions:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: {
Macros: {
RR: "{\\bf R}",
bold: ["{\\bf #1}",1]
}
}
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/config/local/local.js");
and then load it along with your main configuration file on the script
that loads MathJax.js
:
<script src="/MathJax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML,local/local"></script>
If you are using a CDN, you can make a local configuration file on your own server, and load MathJax itself from the CDN and your configuration file from your server. See Using a Local Configuration File with the CDN for details.
Automatic Equation Numbering¶
New in MathJax v2.0 is the ability to have equations be numbered automatically. This functionality is turned off by default, so that pages don’t change when you update from v1.1 to v2.0, but it is easy to configure MathJax to produce automatic equation numbers by adding:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: { equationNumbers: { autoNumber: "AMS" } }
});
</script>
to your page just before the <script>
tag that loads
MathJax.js
itself.
Equations can be numbered in two ways: either number the AMSmath
environments as LaTeX would, or number all displayed equations (the
example above uses AMSstyle numbering). Set autoNumber
to
"all"
if you want every displayed equation to be numbered.
You can use \notag
or \nonumber
to prevent
individual equations from being numbered, and \tag{}
can be used
to override the usual equation number with your own symbol instead.
Note that the AMS environments come in two forms: starred and
unstarred. The unstarred versions produce equation numbers (when
autoNumber
is set to "AMS"
) and the starred ones don’t. For
example
\begin{equation}
E = mc^2
\end{equation}
will be numbered, while
\begin{equation*}
e^{\pi i} + 1 = 0
\end{equation*}
won’t be numbered (when autoNumber
is "AMS"
).
You can use \label
to give an equation an identifier that you can
use to refer to it later, and then use \ref
or \eqref
within
your document to insert the actual equation number at that location,
as a reference. For example,
In equation \eqref{eq:sample}, we find the value of an
interesting integral:
\begin{equation}
\int_0^\infty \frac{x^3}{e^x1}\,dx = \frac{\pi^4}{15}
\label{eq:sample}
\end{equation}
includes a labeled equation and a reference to that equation. Note that references can come before the corresponding formula as well as after them. See the equation numbering pages in the MathJax examples at for more examples.
You can configure the way that numbers are displayed and how the
references to them are made using parameters in the equationNumbers
block of your TeX
configuration. See the TeX configuration
options page for more details.
If you are using automatic equation numbering and modifying the page dynamically, you can run into problems due to duplicate labels. See Reset Automatic Equation Numbering for how to address this.
TeX and LaTeX extensions¶
While MathJax includes nearly all of the Plain TeX math macros, and
many of the LaTeX macros and environments, not everything is
implemented in the core TeX input processor. Some lessused commands
are defined in extensions to the TeX processor. MathJax will load
some extensions automatically when you first use the commands they
implement (for example, the \def
and \newcommand
macros are
implemented in the newcommand.js
extension, but MathJax loads
this extension itself when you use those macros). Not all extensions
are set up to load automatically, however, so you may need to request
some extensions explicitly yourself.
To enable any of the TeX extensions, simply add the appropriate string
(e.g., "AMSmath.js"
) to the extensions array in the TeX
block
of your configuration. If you use one of the combined configuration files,
like TeXAMS_CHTML
, this will already include several of the extensions
automatically, but you can include others using a mathjax configuration
script prior to loading MathJax. For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["autobold.js"] }});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML">
</script>
will load the autobold TeX extension in addition to those already
included in the TeXAMS_CHTML
configuration file.
You can also load these extensions from within a math expression using
the nonstandard \require{extension}
macro. For example
\(\require{color}\)
would load the color extension into the page. This way you you can load extensions into pages that didn’t load them in their configurations (and prevents you from having to load all the extensions into all pages even if they aren’t used).
It is also possible to create a macro that will autoload an extension when it is first used (under the assumption that the extension will redefine it to perform its true function). For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready",function () {
MathJax.Hub.Insert(MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros,{
cancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
bcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
xcancel: ["Extension","cancel"],
cancelto: ["Extension","cancel"]
});
});
</script>
would declare the \cancel
, \bcancel
, \xcancel
, and
\cancelto
macros to load the cancel extension (where they are
actually defined). Whichever is used first will cause the extension
to be loaded, redefining all four to their proper values. Note that
this may be better than loading the extension explicitly, since it
avoids loading the extra file on pages where these macros are not
used. The sample autoloading macros
example page shows this in action. The autoloadall extension below
defines such macros for all the extensions so that if you include
it, MathJax will have access to all the macros it knows about.
The main extensions are described below.
Note
Additional thirdparty extensions are available through the Third Party Extensions repository.
Action¶
The action extension gives you access to the MathML <maction>
element. It defines three new nonstandard macros:

\mathtip{math}{tip}
Use
tip
(in math mode) as tooltip formath
.

\texttip{math}{tip}
Use
tip
(in text mode) as tooltip formath
.

\toggle{math1}{math2}...\endtoggle
Show
math1
, and when clicked, showmath2
, and so on. When the last one is clicked, go back to math1.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["action.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
AMSmath and AMSsymbols¶
The AMSmath extension implements AMS math environments and macros, and the AMSsymbols extension implements macros for accessing the AMS symbol fonts. These are already included in the combined configuration files that load the TeX input processor. To use these extensions in your own configurations, add them to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMSmath.js", "AMSsymbols.js"]
}
See the list of control sequences at the end of this document for details about what commands are implemented in these extensions.
If you are not using one of the combined configuration files, the AMSmath extension will be loaded automatically when you first use one of the math environments it defines, but you will have to load it explicitly if you want to use the other macros that it defines. The AMSsymbols extension is not loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly if you want to use the macros it defines.
AMScd¶
The AMScd extensions implements the CD environment for commutative diagrams. See the AMScd guide for more information on how to use the CD environment.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["AMScd.js"]
}
Alternatively, if the extension hasn’t been loaded in the
configuration, you can use \require{AMScd}
to load it from within a
TeX expression. Note that you only need to include this once on the
page, not every time the CD environment is used.
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Autobold¶
The autobold extension adds \boldsymbol{...}
around mathematics that
appears in a section of an HTML page that is in bold.
TeX: {
extensions: ["autobold.js"]
}
This extension is not loaded by the combined configuration files.
BBox¶
The bbox extension defines a new macro for adding background colors, borders, and padding to your math expressions.

\bbox[options]{math}
puts a bounding box around
math
using the providedoptions
. The options can be one of the following: A color name used for the background color.
 A dimension (e.g.,
2px
) to be used as a padding around the mathematics (on all sides).  Style attributes to be applied to the mathematics (e.g.,
border:1px solid red
).  A combination of these separated by commas.
Here are some examples:
\bbox[red]{x+y} % a red box behind x+y
\bbox[2pt]{x+1} % an invisible box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
\bbox[red,2pt]{x+1} % a red box around x+y with 2pt of extra space
\bbox[5px,border:2px solid red]
% a 2px red border around the math 5px away
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, but it will be loaded automatically, so you do not need to include it in your extensions array.
Begingroup¶
The begingroup extension implements commands that provide a mechanism for localizing macro defintions so that they are not permanent. This is useful if you have a blog site, for example, and want to isolate changes that your readers make in their comments so that they don’t affect later comments.
It defines two new nonstandard macros, \begingroup
and
\endgroup
, that are used to start and stop a local namespace for
macros. Any macros that are defined between the \begingroup
and
\endgroup
will be removed after the \endgroup
is executed.
For example, if you put \(\begingroup\)
at the top of each reader’s
comments and \(\endgroup\)
at the end, then any macros they define
within their response will be removed after it is processed.
In addition to these two macros, the begingroup extension defines
the standard \global
and \gdef
control sequences from TeX.
(The \let
, \def
, \newcommand
, and \newenvironment
control sequences are already defined in the core TeX input jax.)
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["begingroup.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Cancel¶
The cancel extension defines the following macros:

\cancel{math}
Strikeout
math
from lower left to upper right.

\bcancel{math}
Strikeout
math
from upper left to lower right.

\xcancel{math}
Strikeout
math
with an “X”.

\cancelto{value}{math}
Strikeout
math
with an arrow going tovalue
.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["cancel.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Color¶
The \color
command in the core TeX input jax is not standard in
that it takes the mathematics to be colored as one of its parameters,
whereas the LaTeX \color
command is a switch that changes the
color of everything that follows it.
The color extension changes the \color
command to be compatible
with the LaTeX implementation, and also defines \colorbox
,
\fcolorbox
, and \definecolor
, as in the LaTeX color package.
It defines the standard set of colors (Apricot, Aquamarine,
Bittersweet, and so on), and provides the RGB and greyscale color
spaces in addition to named colors.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["color.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations,
and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it
explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands,
and have \color
be compatible with LaTeX usage.
Enclose¶
The enclose extension gives you access to the MathML <menclose>
element for adding boxes, ovals, strikethroughs, and other marks over
your mathematics. It defines the following nonstandard macro:

\enclose{notation}[attributes]{math}
Where
notation
is a commaseparated list of MathML<menclose>
notations (e.g.,circle
,left
,updiagonalstrike
,longdiv
, etc.),attributes
are MathML attribute values allowed on the<menclose>
element (e.g.,mathcolor="red"
,mathbackground="yellow"
), andmath
is the mathematics to be enclosed. See the MathML 3 specification for more details on<menclose>
.
For example
\enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{x}
\enclose{circle}[mathcolor="red"]{\color{black}{x}}
\enclose{circle,box}{x}
\enclose{circle}{\enclose{box}{x}}
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["enclose.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Extpfeil¶
The extpfeil extension adds more macros for producing extensible
arrows, including \xtwoheadrightarrow
, \xtwoheadleftarrow
,
\xmapsto
, \xlongequal
, \xtofrom
, and a nonstandard
\Newextarrow
for creating your own extensible arrows. The latter
has the form

\Newextarrow{\cs}{lspace,rspace}{unicodechar}
where
\cs
is the new control sequence name to be defined,lspace
andrspace
are integers representing the amount of space (in suitably small units) to use at the left and right of text that is placed above or below the arrow, andunicodechar
is a number representing a unicode character position in either decimal or hexadecimal notation.
For example
\Newextarrow{\xrightharpoonup}{5,10}{0x21C0}
defines an extensible right harpoon with barb up. Note that MathJax knows how to stretch only a limited number of characters, so you may not actually get a stretchy character this way.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["extpfeil.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
HTML¶
The HTML extension gives you access to some HTML features like styles, classes, element ID’s and clickable links. It defines the following nonstandard macros:

\href{url}{math}
Makes
math
be a link to the page given byurl
.

\class{name}{math}
Attaches the CSS class
name
to the output associated withmath
when it is included in the HTML page. This allows your CSS to style the element.

\cssId{id}{math}
Attaches an id attribute with value
id
to the output associated withmath
when it is included in the HTML page. This allows your CSS to style the element, or your javascript to locate it on the page.

\style{css}{math}
Adds the give
css
declarations to the element associated withmath
.
For example:
x \href{whyequal.html}{=} y^2 + 1
(x+1)^2 = \class{hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}
(x+1)^2 = \cssId{step1}{\style{visibility:hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, but it will be loaded automatically when any of these macros is used, so you do not need to include it explicitly in your configuration.
mhchem¶
The mhchem extensions implements the \ce
, \cf
, and \cee
chemical equation macros of the LaTeX mhchem package. See the
mhchem CTAN page for more
information and a link to the documentation for mhchem.
For example
\ce{C6H5CHO}
\ce{$A$ >[\ce{+H2O}] $B$}
\ce{SO4^2 + Ba^2+ > BaSO4 v}
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["mhchem.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Beginning with v2.7, the extension provides a configuration option to switch to mhchem v3, a complete refactor of mhchem contributed by the author of the original LaTeX package.
You can control this behavior using the legacy
value which defaults
to true
.
TeX: {
mhchem: { legacy: true }
}
noErrors¶
The noErrors extension prevents TeX error messages from being displayed and shows the original TeX code instead. You can configure whether the dollar signs are shown or not for inline math, and whether to put all the TeX on one line or use multiple lines (if the original text contained line breaks).
This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor. To enable the noErrors extension in
your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like the
following to your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call:
TeX: {
extensions: ["noErrors.js"],
noErrors: {
inlineDelimiters: ["",""], // or ["$","$"] or ["\\(","\\)"]
multiLine: true, // false for TeX on all one line
style: {
"fontsize": "90%",
"textalign": "left",
"color": "black",
"padding": "1px 3px",
"border": "1px solid"
// add any additional CSS styles that you want
// (be sure there is no extra comma at the end of the last item)
}
}
}
Displaystyle math is always shown in multiline format, and without delimiters, as it will already be set off in its own centered paragraph, like standard display mathematics.
The default settings place the invalid TeX in a multiline box with a black border. If you want it to look as though the TeX is just part of the paragraph, use
TeX: {
noErrors: {
inlineDelimiters: ["$","$"], // or ["",""] or ["\\(","\\)"]
multiLine: false,
style: {
"fontsize": "normal",
"border": ""
}
}
}
You may also wish to set the font family or other CSS values here.
If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX input processor, it will also load the noErrors extension automatically. If you want to disable the noErrors extension so that you receive the normal TeX error messages, use the following configuration:
TeX: { noErrors: { disabled: true } }
Any math that includes errors will be replaced by an error message indicating what went wrong.
noUndefined¶
The noUndefined extension causes undefined control sequences to be
shown as their macro names rather than generating error messages. So
$X_{\xxx}$
would display as an “X” with a subscript consisting of the
text \xxx
in red.
This extension is loaded by all the combined configuration files that
include the TeX input processor. To enable the noUndefined extension
in your own configuration, or to modify its parameters, add something like
the following to your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call:
TeX: {
extensions: ["noUndefined.js"],
noUndefined: {
attributes: {
mathcolor: "red",
mathbackground: "#FFEEEE",
mathsize: "90%"
}
}
}
The attributes
setting specifies attributes to apply to the
mtext
element that encodes the name of the undefined macro. The
default values set mathcolor
to "red"
, but do not set any
other attributes. This example sets the background to a light pink,
and reduces the font size slightly.
If you are using a combined configuration file that loads the TeX input processor, it will also load the noUndefined extension automatically. If you want to disable the noUndefined extension so that you receive the normal TeX error messages for undefined macros, use the following configuration:
TeX: { noUndefined: { disabled: true } }
Any math that includes an undefined control sequence name will be replaced by an error message indicating what name was undefined.
Unicode support¶
The unicode extension implements a \unicode{}
extension to TeX
that allows arbitrary unicode code points to be entered in your
mathematics. You can specify the height and depth of the character
(the width is determined by the browser), and the default font from
which to take the character.
Examples:
\unicode{65} % the character 'A'
\unicode{x41} % the character 'A'
\unicode[.55,0.05]{x22D6} % lessthan with dot, with height .55em and depth 0.05em
\unicode[.55,0.05][Geramond]{x22D6} % same taken from Geramond font
\unicode[Garamond]{x22D6} % same, but with default height, depth of .8em,.2em
Once a size and font are provided for a given unicode point, they need
not be specified again in subsequent \unicode{}
calls for that
character.
The result of \unicode{...}
will have TeX class ORD (i.e., it
will act like a variable). Use \mathbin{...}
, \mathrel{...}
,
etc., to specify a different class.
Note that a font list can be given in the \unicode{}
macro, but
Internet Explorer has a buggy implementation of the fontfamily
CSS attribute where it only looks in the first font in the list that
is actually installed on the system, and if the required glyph is not
in that font, it does not look at later fonts, but goes directly to
the default font as set in the InternetOptions/Font panel. For
this reason, the default font list for the \unicode{}
macro is
STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'
, so if the user has STIX
fonts, the symbol will be taken from that (almost all the symbols are
in STIXGeneral), otherwise MathJax tries Arial Unicode MS.
The unicode extension is loaded automatically when you first use the
\unicode{}
macro, so you do not need to add it to the extensions
array. You can configure the extension as follows:
TeX: {
unicode: {
fonts: "STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS'"
}
}
Autoloadall¶
The autoloadall extension predefines all the macros from the
extensions above so that they autoload the extensions when first
used. A number of macros already do this, e.g., \unicode
, but
this extension defines the others to do the same. That way MathJax
will have access to all the macros that it knows about.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["autoloadall.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Note that autoloadall redefines \color
to be the one from the
color extension (the LaTeXcompatible one rather than the
nonstandard MathJax version). This is because \colorbox
and
\fcolorbox
autoload the color extension, which will cause
\color
to be redefined, and so for consistency, \color
is
redefined immediately.
If you wish to retain the original definition of \color
, then use
the following
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: { extensions: ["autoloadall.js"] }
});
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX autoloadall Ready", function () {
var MACROS = MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.macros;
MACROS.color = "Color";
delete MACROS.colorbox;
delete MACROS.fcolorbox;
});
</script>
mediawikitexvc¶
The mediawikitexvc extension predefines macros that match the behavior of the MediaWiki Math Extension.
To use this extension in your own configurations, add it to the extensions array in the TeX block.
TeX: {
extensions: ["mediawikitexvc.js"]
}
This extension is not included in any of the combined configurations, and will not be loaded automatically, so you must include it explicitly in your configuration if you wish to use these commands.
Supported LaTeX commands¶
This is a long list of the TeX macros supported by MathJax. If the macro is defined in an extension, the name of the extension follows the macro name. If the extension is in brackets, the extension will be loaded automatically when the macro or environment is first used.
More complete details about how to use these macros, with examples and explanations, is available at Carol Fisher’s TeX Commands Available in MathJax page.
Symbols¶
#
%
&
^
_
{
}
~
'
\ (backslashspace)
\!
\#
\$
\%
\&
\,
\:
\;
\>
\\
\_
\{
\
\}
A¶
\AA mediawikitexvc
\above
\abovewithdelims
\acute
\alef mediawikitexvc
\aleph
\alpha
\Alpha mediawikitexvc
\amalg
\And
\and mediawikitexvc
\ang mediawikitexvc
\angle
\approx
\approxeq AMSsymbols
\arccos
\arcsin
\arctan
\arg
\array
\Arrowvert
\arrowvert
\ast
\asymp
\atop
\atopwithdelims
B¶
\backepsilon AMSsymbols
\backprime AMSsymbols
\backsim AMSsymbols
\backsimeq AMSsymbols
\backslash
\bar
\barwedge AMSsymbols
\Bbb
\Bbb mediawikitexvc
\Bbbk AMSsymbols
\bbox [bbox]
\bcancel cancel
\because AMSsymbols
\begin
\begingroup begingroup nonstandard
\beta
\Beta mediawikitexvc
\beth AMSsymbols
\between AMSsymbols
\bf
\Big
\big
\bigcap
\bigcirc
\bigcup
\Bigg
\bigg
\Biggl
\biggl
\Biggm
\biggm
\Biggr
\biggr
\Bigl
\bigl
\Bigm
\bigm
\bigodot
\bigoplus
\bigotimes
\Bigr
\bigr
\bigsqcup
\bigstar AMSsymbols
\bigtriangledown
\bigtriangleup
\biguplus
\bigvee
\bigwedge
\binom AMSmath
\blacklozenge AMSsymbols
\blacksquare AMSsymbols
\blacktriangle AMSsymbols
\blacktriangledown AMSsymbols
\blacktriangleleft AMSsymbols
\blacktriangleright AMSsymbols
\bmod
\bold mediawikitexvc
\boldsymbol [boldsymbol]
\bot
\bowtie
\Box AMSsymbols
\boxdot AMSsymbols
\boxed AMSmath
\boxminus AMSsymbols
\boxplus AMSsymbols
\boxtimes AMSsymbols
\brace
\bracevert
\brack
\breve
\buildrel
\bull mediawikitexvc
\bullet
\Bumpeq AMSsymbols
\bumpeq AMSsymbols
C¶
\C mediawikitexvc
\cal
\cancel cancel
\cancelto cancel
\cap
\Cap AMSsymbols
\cases
\cdot
\cdotp
\cdots
\ce mhchem
\cee mhchem
\centerdot AMSsymbols
\cf mhchem
\cfrac AMSmath
\check
\checkmark AMSsymbols
\chi
\Chi mediawikitexvc
\choose
\circ
\circeq AMSsymbols
\circlearrowleft AMSsymbols
\circlearrowright AMSsymbols
\circledast AMSsymbols
\circledcirc AMSsymbols
\circleddash AMSsymbols
\circledR AMSsymbols
\circledS AMSsymbols
\class [HTML] nonstandard
\clubs mediawikitexvc
\clubsuit
\cnums mediawikitexvc
\colon
\color color
\colorbox color
\complement AMSsymbols
\Complex mediawikitexvc
\cong
\coppa mediawikitexvc
\Coppa mediawikitexvc
\coprod
\cos
\cosh
\cot
\coth
\cr
\csc
\cssId [HTML] nonstandard
\cup
\Cup AMSsymbols
\curlyeqprec AMSsymbols
\curlyeqsucc AMSsymbols
\curlyvee AMSsymbols
\curlywedge AMSsymbols
\curvearrowleft AMSsymbols
\curvearrowright AMSsymbols
D¶
\dagger
\Dagger mediawikitexvc
\daleth AMSsymbols
\Darr mediawikitexvc
\dashleftarrow AMSsymbols
\dashrightarrow AMSsymbols
\dashv
\dbinom AMSmath
\ddagger
\ddddot AMSmath
\dddot AMSmath
\ddot
\ddots
\DeclareMathOperator AMSmath
\definecolor color
\def [newcommand]
\deg
\Delta
\delta
\det
\dfrac AMSmath
\diagdown AMSsymbols
\diagup AMSsymbols
\diamond
\Diamond AMSsymbols
\diamonds mediawikitexvc
\diamondsuit
\digamma AMSsymbols
\Digamma mediawikitexvc
\dim
\displaylines
\displaystyle
\div
\divideontimes AMSsymbols
\dot
\doteq
\Doteq AMSsymbols
\doteqdot AMSsymbols
\dotplus AMSsymbols
\dots
\dotsb
\dotsc
\dotsi
\dotsm
\dotso
\doublebarwedge AMSsymbols
\doublecap AMSsymbols
\doublecup AMSsymbols
\Downarrow
\downarrow
\downdownarrows AMSsymbols
\downharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\downharpoonright AMSsymbols
E¶
\ell
\empty mediawikitexvc
\emptyset
\enclose enclose nonstandard
\end
\endgroup begingroup nonstandard
\enspace
\epsilon
\Epsilon mediawikitexvc
\eqalign
\eqalignno
\eqcirc AMSsymbols
\eqref [AMSmath]
\eqsim AMSsymbols
\eqslantgtr AMSsymbols
\eqslantless AMSsymbols
\equiv
\eta
\Eta mediawikitexvc
\eth AMSsymbols
\euro mediawikitexvc
\exist mediawikitexvc
\exists
\exp
F¶
\fallingdotseq AMSsymbols
\fbox
\fcolorbox color
\Finv AMSsymbols
\flat
\forall
\frac
\frac AMSmath
\frak
\frown
G¶
\Game AMSsymbols
\Gamma
\gamma
\gcd
\gdef begingroup
\ge
\geneuro mediawikitexvc
\geneuronarrow mediawikitexvc
\geneurowide mediawikitexvc
\genfrac AMSmath
\geq
\geqq AMSsymbols
\geqslant AMSsymbols
\gets
\gg
\ggg AMSsymbols
\gggtr AMSsymbols
\gimel AMSsymbols
\global begingroup
\gnapprox AMSsymbols
\gneq AMSsymbols
\gneqq AMSsymbols
\gnsim AMSsymbols
\grave
\gt
\gtrapprox AMSsymbols
\gtrdot AMSsymbols
\gtreqless AMSsymbols
\gtreqqless AMSsymbols
\gtrless AMSsymbols
\gtrsim AMSsymbols
\gvertneqq AMSsymbols
H¶
\H mediawikitexvc
\hAar mediawikitexvc
\harr mediawikitexvc
\Harr mediawikitexvc
\hat
\hbar
\hbox
\hdashline
\hearts mediawikitexvc
\heartsuit
\hline
\hom
\hookleftarrow
\hookrightarrow
\hphantom
\href [HTML]
\hskip
\hslash AMSsymbols
\hspace
\Huge
\huge
\idotsint AMSmath
I¶
\iff
\iiiint AMSmath
\iiint
\iint
\Im
\image mediawikitexvc
\imath
\impliedby AMSsymbols
\implies AMSsymbols
\in
\inf
\infin mediawikitexvc
\infty
\injlim AMSmath
\int
\intercal AMSsymbols
\intop
\isin mediawikitexvc
\iota
\Iota mediawikitexvc
\it
J¶
\jmath
\Join AMSsymbols
K¶
\kappa
\Kappa mediawikitexvc
\ker
\kern
\koppa mediawikitexvc
\Koppa mediawikitexvc
L¶
\label [AMSmath]
\Lambda
\lambda
\land
\lang mediawikitexvc
\langle
\LARGE
\Large
\large
\larr mediawikitexvc
\Larr mediawikitexvc
\lArr mediawikitexvc
\LaTeX
\lbrace
\lbrack
\lceil
\ldotp
\ldots
\le
\leadsto AMSsymbols
\left
\Leftarrow
\leftarrow
\leftarrowtail AMSsymbols
\leftharpoondown
\leftharpoonup
\leftleftarrows AMSsymbols
\Leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrows AMSsymbols
\leftrightharpoons AMSsymbols
\leftrightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
\leftroot
\leftthreetimes AMSsymbols
\leq
\leqalignno
\leqq AMSsymbols
\leqslant AMSsymbols
\lessapprox AMSsymbols
\lessdot AMSsymbols
\lesseqgtr AMSsymbols
\lesseqqgtr AMSsymbols
\lessgtr AMSsymbols
\lesssim AMSsymbols
\let [newcommand]
\lfloor
\lg
\lgroup
\lhd AMSsymbols
\lim
\liminf
\limits
\limsup
\ll
\llap
\llcorner AMSsymbols
\Lleftarrow AMSsymbols
\lll AMSsymbols
\llless AMSsymbols
\lmoustache
\ln
\lnapprox AMSsymbols
\lneq AMSsymbols
\lneqq AMSsymbols
\lnot
\lnsim AMSsymbols
\log
\Longleftarrow
\longleftarrow
\Longleftrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow
\longmapsto
\Longrightarrow
\longrightarrow
\looparrowleft AMSsymbols
\looparrowright AMSsymbols
\lor
\lower
\lozenge AMSsymbols
\lrarr mediawikitexvc
\Lrarr mediawikitexvc
\lrArr mediawikitexvc
\lrcorner AMSsymbols
\Lsh AMSsymbols
\lt
\ltimes AMSsymbols
\lVert AMSmath
\lvert AMSmath
\lvertneqq AMSsymbols
M¶
\maltese AMSsymbols
\mapsto
\mathbb
\mathbf
\mathbin
\mathcal
\mathchoice [mathchoice]
\mathclose
\mathfrak
\mathinner
\mathit
\mathop
\mathopen
\mathord
\mathpunct
\mathrel
\mathring AMSmath
\mathrm
\mathscr
\mathsf
\mathstrut
\mathtip action nonstandard
\mathtt
\matrix
\max
\mbox
\measuredangle AMSsymbols
\mho AMSsymbols
\mid
\middle
\min
\mit
\mkern
\mmlToken nonstandard
\mod
\models
\moveleft
\moveright
\mp
\mskip
\mspace
\mu
\Mu mediawikitexvc
\multimap AMSsymbols
N¶
\N mediawikitexvc
\nabla
\natural
\natnums mediawikitexvc
\ncong AMSsymbols
\ne
\nearrow
\neg
\negmedspace AMSmath
\negthickspace AMSmath
\negthinspace
\neq
\newcommand [newcommand]
\newenvironment [newcommand]
\Newextarrow extpfeil
\newline
\nexists AMSsymbols
\ngeq AMSsymbols
\ngeqq AMSsymbols
\ngeqslant AMSsymbols
\ngtr AMSsymbols
\ni
\nLeftarrow AMSsymbols
\nleftarrow AMSsymbols
\nLeftrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nleftrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nleq AMSsymbols
\nleqq AMSsymbols
\nleqslant AMSsymbols
\nless AMSsymbols
\nmid AMSsymbols
\nobreakspace AMSmath
\nolimits
\normalsize
\not
\notag [AMSmath]
\notin
\nparallel AMSsymbols
\nprec AMSsymbols
\npreceq AMSsymbols
\nRightarrow AMSsymbols
\nrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nshortmid AMSsymbols
\nshortparallel AMSsymbols
\nsim AMSsymbols
\nsubseteq AMSsymbols
\nsubseteqq AMSsymbols
\nsucc AMSsymbols
\nsucceq AMSsymbols
\nsupseteq AMSsymbols
\nsupseteqq AMSsymbols
\ntriangleleft AMSsymbols
\ntrianglelefteq AMSsymbols
\ntriangleright AMSsymbols
\ntrianglerighteq AMSsymbols
\nu
\Nu mediawikitexvc
\nVDash AMSsymbols
\nVdash AMSsymbols
\nvDash AMSsymbols
\nvdash AMSsymbols
\nwarrow
O¶
\O mediawikitexvc
\odot
\officialeuro mediawikitexvc
\oint
\oldstyle
\Omega
\omega
\omicron
\Omicron mediawikitexvc
\ominus
\operatorname AMSmath
\oplus
\or mediawikitexvc
\oslash
\otimes
\over
\overbrace
\overleftarrow
\overleftrightarrow
\overline
\overrightarrow
\overset
\overwithdelims
\owns
P¶
\P mediawikitexvc
\pagecolor mediawikitexvc
\parallel
\part mediawikitexvc
\partial
\perp
\phantom
\Phi
\phi
\Pi
\pi
\pitchfork AMSsymbols
\plusmn mediawikitexvc
\pm
\pmatrix
\pmb
\pmod
\pod
\Pr
\prec
\precapprox AMSsymbols
\preccurlyeq AMSsymbols
\preceq
\precnapprox AMSsymbols
\precneqq AMSsymbols
\precnsim AMSsymbols
\precsim AMSsymbols
\prime
\prod
\projlim AMSmath
\propto
\Psi
\psi
Q¶
\Q mediawikitexvc
\qquad
\quad
R¶
\R mediawikitexvc
\raise
\rang mediawikitexvc
\rangle
\rarr mediawikitexvc
\Rarr mediawikitexvc
\rArr mediawikitexvc
\rbrace
\rbrack
\rceil
\Re
\real mediawikitexvc
\reals mediawikitexvc
\Reals mediawikitexvc
\ref [AMSmath]
\renewcommand [newcommand]
\renewenvironment [newcommand]
\require nonstandard
\restriction AMSsymbols
\rfloor
\rgroup
\rhd AMSsymbols
\rho
\Rho mediawikitexvc
\right
\Rightarrow
\rightarrow
\rightarrowtail AMSsymbols
\rightharpoondown
\rightharpoonup
\rightleftarrows AMSsymbols
\rightleftharpoons
\rightleftharpoons AMSsymbols
\rightrightarrows AMSsymbols
\rightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
\rightthreetimes AMSsymbols
\risingdotseq AMSsymbols
\rlap
\rm
\rmoustache
\root
\Rrightarrow AMSsymbols
\Rsh AMSsymbols
\rtimes AMSsymbols
\Rule nonstandard
\rVert AMSmath
\rvert AMSmath
S¶
\S
\sampi mediawikitexvc
\Sampi mediawikitexvc
\scr
\scriptscriptstyle
\scriptsize
\scriptstyle
\sdot mediawikitexvc
\searrow
\sect mediawikitexvc
\sec
\setminus
\sf
\sharp
\shortmid AMSsymbols
\shortparallel AMSsymbols
\shoveleft AMSmath
\shoveright AMSmath
\sideset AMSmath
\Sigma
\sigma
\sim
\simeq
\sin
\sinh
\skew
\small
\smallfrown AMSsymbols
\smallint
\smallsetminus AMSsymbols
\smallsmile AMSsymbols
\smash
\smile
\spades mediawikitexvc
\Space nonstandard
\space
\spadesuit
\sphericalangle AMSsymbols
\sqcap
\sqcup
\sqrt
\sqsubset AMSsymbols
\sqsubseteq
\sqsupset AMSsymbols
\sqsupseteq
\square AMSsymbols
\stackrel
\star
\stigma mediawikitexvc
\Stigma mediawikitexvc
\strut
\style [HTML] nonstanard
\sub mediawikitexvc
\sube mediawikitexvc
\subset
\Subset AMSsymbols
\subseteq
\subseteqq AMSsymbols
\subsetneq AMSsymbols
\subsetneqq AMSsymbols
\substack AMSmath
\succ
\succapprox AMSsymbols
\succcurlyeq AMSsymbols
\succeq
\succnapprox AMSsymbols
\succneqq AMSsymbols
\succnsim AMSsymbols
\succsim AMSsymbols
\sum
\sup
\supe mediawikitexvc
\supset
\Supset AMSsymbols
\supseteq
\supseteqq AMSsymbols
\supsetneq AMSsymbols
\supsetneqq AMSsymbols
\surd
\swarrow
T¶
\tag [AMSmath]
\tan
\tanh
\tau
\Tau mediawikitexvc
\tbinom AMSmath
\TeX
\text
\textbf
\textit
\textrm
\textsf
\textstyle
\texttt
\texttip action nonstandard
\textvisiblespace mediawikitexvc
\tfrac AMSmath
\therefore AMSsymbols
\Theta
\theta
\thetasym mediawikitexvc
\thickapprox AMSsymbols
\thicksim AMSsymbols
\thinspace
\tilde
\times
\tiny
\Tiny nonstandard
\to
\toggle action nonstandard
\top
\triangle
\triangledown AMSsymbols
\triangleleft
\trianglelefteq AMSsymbols
\triangleq AMSsymbols
\triangleright
\trianglerighteq AMSsymbols
\tt
\twoheadleftarrow AMSsymbols
\twoheadrightarrow AMSsymbols
U¶
\uarr mediawikitexvc
\uArr mediawikitexvc
\Uarr mediawikitexvc
\ulcorner AMSsymbols
\underbrace
\underleftarrow
\underleftrightarrow
\underline
\underrightarrow
\underset
\unicode [unicode] nonstandard
\unlhd AMSsymbols
\unrhd AMSsymbols
\Uparrow
\uparrow
\Updownarrow
\updownarrow
\upharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\upharpoonright AMSsymbols
\uplus
\uproot
\Upsilon
\upsilon
\upuparrows AMSsymbols
\urcorner AMSsymbols
V¶
\varcoppa mediawikitexvc
\varDelta AMSsymbols
\varepsilon
\varGamma AMSsymbols
\varinjlim AMSmath
\varkappa AMSsymbols
\varLambda AMSsymbols
\varliminf AMSmath
\varlimsup AMSmath
\varnothing AMSsymbols
\varOmega AMSsymbols
\varphi
\varPhi AMSsymbols
\varpi
\varPi AMSsymbols
\varprojlim AMSmath
\varpropto AMSsymbols
\varPsi AMSsymbols
\varrho
\varsigma
\varSigma AMSsymbols
\varstigma mediawikitexvc
\varsubsetneq AMSsymbols
\varsubsetneqq AMSsymbols
\varsupsetneq AMSsymbols
\varsupsetneqq AMSsymbols
\vartheta
\varTheta AMSsymbols
\vartriangle AMSsymbols
\vartriangleleft AMSsymbols
\vartriangleright AMSsymbols
\varUpsilon AMSsymbols
\varXi AMSsymbols
\vcenter
\vdash
\Vdash AMSsymbols
\vDash AMSsymbols
\vdots
\vec
\vee
\veebar AMSsymbols
\verb [verb]
\Vert
\vert
\vline mediawikitexvc
\vphantom
\Vvdash AMSsymbols
W¶
\wedge
\weierp mediawikitexvc
\widehat
\widetilde
\wp
\wr
X¶
\Xi
\xi
\xcancel cancel
\xleftarrow AMSmath
\xlongequal extpfeil
\xmapsto extpfeil
\xrightarrow AMSmath
\xtofrom extpfeil
\xtwoheadleftarrow extpfeil
\xtwoheadrightarrow extpfeil
Y¶
\yen AMSsymbols
Z¶
\Z mediawikitexvc
\zeta
\Zeta mediawikitexvc
Environments¶
LaTeX environments of the form \begin{XXX} ... \end{XXX}
are
provided where XXX
is one of the following:
align [AMSmath]
align* [AMSmath]
alignat [AMSmath]
alignat* [AMSmath]
aligned [AMSmath]
alignedat [AMSmath]
array
Bmatrix
bmatrix
cases
CD AMSmath
eqnarray
eqnarray*
equation
equation*
gather [AMSmath]
gather* [AMSmath]
gathered [AMSmath]
matrix
multline [AMSmath]
multline* [AMSmath]
pmatrix
smallmatrix AMSmath
split [AMSmath]
subarray AMSmath
Vmatrix
vmatrix
MathJax MathML Support¶
The support for MathML in MathJax comes in three parts: the
mml2jax preprocessor, the MathML input processor, and the NativeMML
output processor. The first of these looks for <math>
tags within
your document and marks them for later processing by MathJax. The
second converts the MathML to the internal format used by MathJax, and
the third turns the internal format into MathML within the page so
that it can be displayed by the browser’s native MathML support.
Because of MathJax’s modular design, you do not need to use all three of these components. For example, you could use the tex2jax preprocessor and the TeX input processor, but the NativeMML output processor, so that your mathematics is entered in TeX format, but displayed as MathML. Or you could use the mml2jax preprocessor and MathML input processor with the HTMLCSS output processor to make MathML available in browsers that don’t have native MathML support. It is also possible to have MathJax select the output processor for you so that MathML is used in those browsers that support it well enough, while HTMLCSS is used for those that don’t. See the combined configurations section for details and examples.
Of course it is also possible to use all three components together. It may seem strange to go through an internal format just to return to MathML in the end, but this is actually what makes it possible to view MathML within an HTML4 page (rather than an XHTML page), in particular in older browsers, without the complications of handling special MIMEtypes for the document, or any of the other setup issues that make using native MathML difficult. MathML in HTML5 documents is more natural, however.
MathJax handles the setup and properly marks the mathematics so that the browser will render it as MathML. In addition, MathJax provides its contextual menu for the MathML, which lets the user zoom the mathematics for easier reading, get and copy the source markup, and so on, so there is added value to using MathJax even with a pure MathML workflow.
MathML in HTML pages¶
For MathML that is handled via the preprocessor, you should not use
named MathML entities, but rather use numeric entities like
√
or unicode characters embedded in the page itself. The
reason is that entities are replaced by the browser before MathJax
runs, and some browsers report errors for unknown entities. For
browsers that are not MathMLaware, that will cause errors to be
displayed for the MathML entities. While that might not occur in the
browser you are using to compose your pages, it can happen with other
browsers, so you should avoid the named entities whenever possible.
If you must use named entities, you may need to declare them in the
DOCTYPE declaration by hand.
When you use MathML in an HTML document rather than an XHTML one (MathJax will work with both), you should not use the “selfclosing” form for tags with no content, but should use separate open and close tags. That is, use
<mspace width="thinmathspace"></mspace>
rather than <mspace width="thinmathspace" />
. This is because HTML
(prior to HTML5) does not have selfclosing tags, and some browsers
will get the nesting of tags wrong if you attempt to use them. For
example, with <mspace width="1em" />
, since there is no closing
tag, the rest of the mathematics will become the content of the
<mspace>
tag; but since <mspace>
should have no content, the
rest of the mathematics will not be displayed. This is a common error
that should be avoided. Modern browsers that support HTML5 should be
able to handle selfclosing tags, but older browsers have problems
with them, so if you want your mathematics to be visible to the widest
audience, do not use the selfclosing form in HTML documents.
Supported MathML commands¶
MathJax supports the MathML3.0 mathematics tags, with some limitations. The MathML support is still under active development, so some tags are not yet implemented, and some features are not fully developed, but are coming.
The deficiencies include:
 No support for alignment groups in tables.
 Not all attributes are supported for tables. E.g.,
columnspan
androwspan
are not implemented yet.  Experimental support for the elementary math tags:
mstack
,mlongdiv
,msgroup
,msrow
,mscarries
, andmscarry
. (Via themml3
extension, see below.)  Experimental support for bidirectional mathematics. (Via the
mml3
extension, see below.)
See the results of the MathML3.0 test suite for details.
Content MathML¶
To use Content MathML in your documents, simply include
"contentmathml.js"
in the extensions
array of your MathML
configuration block. For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathML: {
extensions: ["contentmathml.js"]
}
});
</script>
Note that this script tag must come before the script that loads
MathJax.js
itself.
For more information, see The Content MathML extension.
Experimental mml3 extension¶
To activate experimental features in your documents, simply include
"mml3.js"
in the extensions
array of your MathML
configuration block. For example
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathML: {
extensions: ["mml3.js"]
}
});
</script>
Note that this script tag must come before the script that loads
MathJax.js
itself.
For more information, see The MML3 extension.
Semantics and Annotations¶
Starting with MathJax version 2.3, some popular annotation formats like TeX,
Maple, or Content MathML that are often included in the MathML source via the
semantics
element are accessible from the "Show Math As"
menu.
See the MathML Annotation Framework and
the The MathMenu extension documentation for details.
MathJax AsciiMath Support¶
The support for AsciiMath in MathJax consists of two parts:
the asciimath2jax preprocessor, and the AsciiMath input processor.
The first of these looks for mathematics within your web page
(indicated by delimiters like `...`
) and marks the mathematics for
later processing by MathJax. The AsciiMath input processor is what
converts the AsciiMath notation into MathJax’s internal format, where
one of MathJax’s output processors then displays it in the web page.
The AsciiMath input jax actually includes a copy of ASCIIMathML.js
itself
(see the AsciiMath home page for details).
This means that the results of MathJax’s AsciiMath processing should be the
same as using the actual ASCIIMathML.js
package (at least as far as the
MathML that it generates is concerned). Thanks go to David Lippman
for writing the initial version of the AsciiMath preprocessor and
input jax and for the ongoing improvements from the AsciiMath community.
The asciimath2jax preprocessor can be configured to look for whatever markers you want to use for your math delimiters. See the asciimath2jax configuration options section for details on how to customize the action of asciimath2jax.
The AsciiMath input processor handles conversion of your mathematical notation into MathJax’s internal format (which is essentially MathML). The AsciiMath input processor has few configuration options (see the AsciiMath options section for details).
The AsciiMath input jax handles only the original ASCIIMathML notation (from ASCIIMathML v1.4.7), not the extened LaTeXMathML notation added in version 2.0 of ASCIIMathML, though the AsciiMath input jax does expose the tables that define the symbols that AsciiMath processes, and so it would be possible to extend them to include additional symbols. In general, it is probably better to use MathJax’s TeX input jax to handle LaTeX notation instead.
AsciiMath delimiters¶
By default, the asciimath2jax preprocessor defines the backtick
(`
) as the delimiters for mathematics in AsciiMath format. It
does not define $...$
as math delimiters. That is because
dollar signs appear too often in nonmathematical settings, which
could cause some text to be treated as mathematics unexpectedly. For
example, with singledollar delimiters, “… the cost is $2.50 for the
first one, and $2.00 for each additional one …” would cause the
phrase “2.50 for the first one, and” to be treated as mathematics
since it falls between dollar signs. For this reason, if you want to
use singledollars for AsciiMath notation, you must enable that
explicitly in your configuration:
MathJax.Hub.Config({
asciimath2jax: {
delimiters: [['$','$'], ['`','`']]
}
});
Note that the dollar signs are frequently used as a delimiter for mathematics in the TeX format, and you can not enable the dollarsign delimiter for both. It is probably best to leave dollar signs for TeX notation.
See the config/default.js
file, or the asiimath2jax
configuration options page, for additional
configuration parameters that you can specify for the asciimath2jax
preprocessor, which is the component of MathJax that identifies
AsciiMath notation within the page.
AsciiMath in HTML documents¶
The AsciiMath syntax is descibed in the ASCIIMathML syntax page.
Keep in mind that your mathematics is part of an HTML document, so you
need to be aware of the special characters used by HTML as part of its
markup. There cannot be HTML tags within the math delimiters (other
than <BR>
) as AsciiMathformatted math does not include HTML tags.
Also, since the mathematics is initially given as text on the page,
you need to be careful that your mathematics doesn’t look like HTML
tags to the browser (which parses the page before MathJax gets to see
it). In particular, that means that you have to be careful about
things like lessthan and greaterthan signs (<
and >
), and
ampersands (&
), which have special meaning to the browsers. For
example,
... when `x<y` we have ...
will cause a problem, because the browser will think <y
is the
beginning of a tag named y
(even though there is no such tag in
HTML). When this happens, the browser will think the tag continues up
to the next >
in the document (typically the end of the next
actual tag in the HTML file), and you may notice that you are missing
part of the text of the document. In the example above, the “we
have ...
” will not be displayed because the browser thinks it is
part of the tag starting at <y
. This is one indication you can
use to spot this problem; it is a common error and should be avoided.
Usually, it is sufficient to simply put spaces around these symbols to cause the browser to avoid them, so
... when `x < y` we have ...
should work. Alternatively, you can use the HTML entities <
,
>
and &
to encode these characters so that the browser
will not interpret them, but MathJax will. E.g.,
... when `x < y` we have ...
Keep in mind that the browser interprets your text before MathJax does.
MathJax Output Formats¶
MathJax Output Components¶
Currently, MathJax can render math in three ways:
 Using HTMLwithCSS to lay out the mathematics,
 Using SVG to lay out the mathematics, or
 Using a browser’s native MathML support.
These are implemented by the CommonHTML, HTMLCSS, and PreviewHTML output processors, the SVG output processor, and the NativeMML output processor respectively. In addition, the PlainSource output is a convenience and accessibility output, rendering the source as plain text.
If you are using one of the combined configuration files, then this
will select one of these output processors for you. If the config
file ends in _CHTML
, then it is the CommonHTML output processor,
if it ends in _HTML
, then it is the HTMLCSS output processor, and
if it ends in _SVG
then the SVG output processor will be used. If
it ends in _HTMLorMML
, HTMLCSS output will be used except on
Internet Explorer 9 or below with the MathPlayer plugin;
cf. HTMLorMML extension (deprecated).
If you are performing your own inline or filebased configuration,
you select which one you want to use by including either
"output/CommonHTML"
, output/HTMLCSS
, "output/SVG"
, or
"output/NativeMML"
in the jax array of your MathJax
configuration. For example
jax: ["input/TeX","output/CommonHTML"]
would specify TeX input and CommonHTML output for the mathematics in your document.
The CommonHTML output processor produces highquality output in all modern browsers, with results that are consistent across browsers and operating systems. This is MathJax’s primary output mode since MathJax v2.6. Its major advantage is its quality, consistency, and speed as well as support for serverside generation. Its browser supports starts with IE9 and equivalent browsers and it degrades gracefully on older browsers. The CommonHTML output uses webbased fonts so that users don’t have to have math fonts installed on their computers, but will use locally installed ones if they are available. It currently only supports MathJax’s default TeX fonts.
The HTMLCSS output processor produces highquality output in all browsers, with results that are consistent across browsers and operating systems. This was MathJax’s primary output mode prior to MathJax v2.6. Its major advantage is its quality and consistency on legacy browsers starting with IE6. The HTMLCSS output uses webbased fonts so that users don’t have to have math fonts installed on their computers but can use locally installed fonts instead.
The SVG output processor uses Scalable Vector Graphics to render the mathematics on the page. SVG is supported in all the major browsers and most mobile devices; note, however, that Internet Explorer prior to IE9 does not support SVG, and IE9 only does in “IE9 standards mode”, not its emulation modes for earlier versions. The SVG output mode is high quality and somewhat faster than HTMLCSS, and it does not suffer from some of the fontrelated issues that HTMLCSS does, so prints well in all browsers. Since it uses SVG data instead of font files, it is not affected by user based webfont blocking. One disadvantage of this mode is that its variablewidth tables become fixed size once they are typeset, and don’t rescale if the window size changes (for example). Since equation numbers are handled through variablewidth tables, that means equation numbers may not stay at the edge of the window if it is resized. Also, because its mathematical characters are produced by paths, not characters in a font, they can’t be copy and pasted, as the output of the HTMLbased processors can.
The NativeMML output processor uses the browser’s internal MathML support (if any) to render the mathematics. Currently, Firefox has native support for MathML, and IE has the MathPlayer plugin for rendering MathML. Safari has some support for MathML since version 5.1, but the quality is not as high as either Firefox’s implementation or IE with MathPlayer. Chrome, Konqueror, and most other browsers don’t support MathML natively, but this may change in the future, since MathML is part of the HTML5 specification.
The advantage of the NativeMML output processor is its speed, since native MathML support is usually faster than converting to HTMLwithCSS and SVG. The disadvantage is that you are dependent on the browser’s MathML implementation for your rendering, and these vary in quality of output and completeness of implementation. MathJax relies on features that are not available in some renderers (for example, Firefox’s MathML support does not implement the features needed for labeled equations). While MathJax’s NativeMML output processor works around various limitations of Firefox/Gecko and Safari/WebKit, the results using the NativeMML output processor may have spacing, font, or other rendering problems that are outside of MathJax’s control.
The PreviewHTML output processor produces fast but lowquality output in all modern browsers. It is designed to serve as a fast preview mode as its layout quality is nowhere near the quality of the CommonHTML, HTMLCSS, and SVG output processors. Its major advantage is its speed. Its browser supports starts with IE8. It uses locally installed Timeslike fonts and does not load any webfonts.
The PlainSource output processor injects the plain text source of
the equations instead of a typeset version; if the input is MathML,
the output processor will prefer TeX and AsciiMath notation (in that
order) if it is available in <annotation>
elements. This output is
a convenience output for users who prefer raw source, e.g., users who
need to copy and paste larger document fragments and users of assistive
technologies.
Automatic Line Breaking¶
The CommonHTML, HTMLCSS, and SVG output processors implement (most of) the MathML3 automatic linebreaking specification. (The NativeMML output processor relies on the browser’s native MathML support to handle line breaking when it is used.) Since linebreaking takes extra processing and so can slow down the mathematical output, it is off by default, but you can enable it by adding, e.g.,
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
CommonHTML: { linebreaks: { automatic: true } },
"HTMLCSS": { linebreaks: { automatic: true } },
SVG: { linebreaks: { automatic: true } }
});
</script>
to your page just before the <script>
tag that loads
MathJax.js
itself.
Note
Line breaking only applies to displayed equations, not inline equations (unless the inline equation is itself longer than a line), and the linebreaks are only computed once when the equation is initially typeset, and do not change if the user changes the window size, or if the container changes size for some other reason.
You can control what width is used to determine where the line breaks
shoud occur using the container
parameter of the linebreaks
block. By default it is the width of the containing element, but you
can make it a fixed width, or make it a percentage of the container.
See the CommonHTML configuration,
HTMLCSS configuration, or
SVG configuration pages for more details.
Note that breaks occur only at operations and relations or at explicit
space, but not, for example, in the middle of two consecutive
identifiers, and long identifiers or numbers are not broken, nor are
the contents of <mtext>
elements (which come from the \text{}
macro in TeX input).
The linebreaking algorithm uses the nesting depth, the type of
operator, the size of spaces, and other factors to decide on the
breakpoints, but it does not know the meaning of the mathematics, and
may not choose the optimal breakpoints. We continue to work on
the algorithm as we gain information from its actual use in the field.
If you are using MathML as your input format, you can use the
linebreak="newline"
, linebreak="goodbreak"
,
linebreak="badbreak"
, and linebreak="nobreak"
attributes on
<mo>
elements to help MathJax pick the best breakpoints for your
mathematics; nested <mrow>
elements will reduce the risk of
breaking its children apart. For TeX input, you can use MathJax’s
nonstandard mmltoken
macro (e.g.,
\mmlToken{mo}[linebreak="goodbreak"]{}
) and braces {...}
respectively to achieve analoguous effects.
Automatic Selection of the Output Processor¶
Since not all browsers support MathML natively, it would be unwise to choose the NativeMML output processor unless you are sure of your audience’s browser capabilities. Similarly, you might want more control over which platforms use which renderer.
While MathJax used to provide an extension to handle switching between HTMLCSS and NativeMML output, this limited extension was deprecated in MathJax v2.6.
Instead, you can use the regular MathJax configuration methods to define which output to use where.
In general, you can do the following:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("End Jax",function () {
var BROWSER = MathJax.Hub.Browser;
var jax = "HTMLCSS";
if (BROWSER.isMSIE && BROWSER.hasMathPlayer) jax = "NativeMML";
return MathJax.Hub.setRenderer(jax);
});
</script>
This does essentially what the MMLorHTML
configuration did in its
default settings. You can, of course, substitute whatever output you
want in place of HTMLCSS or NativeMML, and you can add other
ifthen statements for other browsers. E.g.,
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("End Jax",function () {
var BROWSER = MathJax.Hub.Browser;
var jax = "HTMLCSS";
if (BROWSER.isMSIE && BROWSER.hasMathPlayer) jax = "NativeMML";
if (BROWSER.isFirefox) jax = "SVG";
if (BROWSER.isSafari && BROWSER.versionAtLeast("5.0")) jax = "NativeMML";
return MathJax.Hub.setRenderer(jax);
});
</script>
This illustrates using BROWSER.versionAtLeast()
to make some
decisions. You can, of course, be as complicated as you like about
making the choices. For example, you could detect if a user is
blocking webfonts and switch to SVG output (which does not rely on
fonts but SVG data files).
If you want something that is more backward compatible with MMLorHTML (i.e., if you have pages that configure MMLorHTML one way and other apges that configure it another way), here is a version that uses the old MMLorHTML’s “prefer” object, and only sets MathML mode if they browser can handle that.
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("End Jax",function () {
var BROWSER = MathJax.Hub.Browser;
var canUseMML = (BROWSER.isFirefox && BROWSER.versionAtLeast("1.5")) 
(BROWSER.isMSIE && BROWSER.hasMathPlayer) 
(BROWSER.isSafari && BROWSER.versionAtLeast("5.0")) 
(BROWSER.isOpera && BROWSER.versionAtLeast("9.52") &&
!BROWSER.versionAtLeast("14.0"));
var CONFIG = MathJax.Hub.CombineConfig("MMLorHTML",{
prefer: {
MSIE:"MML", Firefox:"HTML", Opera:"HTML", Chrome:"HTML", Safari:"HTML",
other:"HTML"
}
});
var jax = CONFIG.prefer[BROWSER]  CONFIG.prefer.other;
if (jax === "HTML") jax = "HTMLCSS"; else if (jax === "MML") jax = "NativeMML";
if (jax === "NativeMML" && !canUseMML) jax = CONFIG.prefer.other;
return MathJax.Hub.setRenderer(jax);
});
</script>
The deprecated MMLorHTML
extension also included version checking
to see if MathJax is supported in the browser, but there shouldn’t be
a need for that any longer as those older browsers (IE5 and below)
just aren’t used any more.
HTMLorMML extension (deprecated)¶
Warning
This extension has been deprecated in MathJax v2.6. See the section above for alternatives.
With the decline of MathPlayer, the general lack of development of
native MathML implementations, and the increase in output options in
MathJax, we have decided to deprecate the HTMLorMML
extension in
MathJax v2.6.
Originally, a number of combined configuration files would select
NativeMML output when the browser supports it well enough, and
HTMLCSS output otherwise. These are the configuration files that end
in _HTMLorMML
.
These configurations added the "MMLorHTML.js"
extension to
your configuration’s config array, and they would not include an output
processor in your jax array; MathJax will fill that in for you based on
the abilities of your user’s browser.
By default, this extension would choose HTMLCSS in all browsers except for one case: Internet Explorer 9 and below when the MathPlayer plugin is present.
In recent versions of MathJax, this extension would choose HTMLCSS in all Internet Explorer versions when the MathPlayer plugin is present. However, due to lack of support for MathPlayer in Internet Explorer 10 and above, we have restricted this further. In the v1.x releases, MathJax selected NativeMML output for Firefox as well, but we have found that there are too many rendering issues with Firefox’s native MathML implementation, and so MathJax v2.0+ selected HTMLCSS output for Firefox by default as well.
Users can still use the Mathjax contextual menu to select the NativeMML renderer if they wish to.
Note
See the config/default.js
file or the
Configuring MMLorHTML section for further
details.
HTMLCSS Extensions¶
The HTMLCSS output jax uses elements with width set to 100% when it typesets displayed equations. If there are floating elements on the left or right, this can mean that displayed mathematics isn’t properly centered, and can cause equation numbers to overlap the floating content. To avoid this, you can specify the handlefloats extension in the extensions array of your HTMLCSS configuration block.
"HTMLCSS": {
extensions: ["handlefloats.js"]
}
This will use CSS that puts the displayed equations into elements that work like tabel cells, and won’t overlap the floaring content. Because this is somewhat of a misuse of CSS, it is not used by default, but it has proved successful in most situations, so you may consider using it in pages that include material that floats to the left or right of text containing displayed mathematics, especially when equation numbers or tags are used.
See the HTMLCSS configuration options for other options of the HTMLCSS output jax.
Viewport meta tag¶
The meta viewport tag provides the browser with instructions regarding viewports and zooming. This way, web developers can control how a webpage is displayed on a mobile device.
Incorrect or missing viewport information can confuse MathJax’s layout process, leading to very small font sizes. We recommend that you use standard values such as the following:
<meta name="viewport" content="width=devicewidth, initialscale=1">
Internet Explorer Emulation modes¶
Internet Explorer provides socalled emulation modes for backward compatibility to its legacy versions. These emulation modes have been deprecated since Internet Explorer 11, cf. Microsoft documentation.
MathJax is fastest when in the standards mode of each IE version, so it is best to force the highest mode possible. That can be accomplished by adding
<meta httpequiv="XUACompatible" content="IE=edge">
at the top of the <head>
section of your HTML documents.
Note
This line must come at the beginning of the <head>
, before
any stylesheets, scripts, or other content are loaded.
In early versions, we recommended forcing IE8 and IE9 into IE7emulation mode in order to get better performance. That is no longer necessary.
MathJax Font Support¶
MathJax currently supports the following fonts:
 MathJax TeX (default)
 STIX General
 Asana Math
 Neo Euler
 Gyre Pagella
 Gyre Termes
 Latin Modern
MathJax contains customized webfont versions of these fonts. In particular, these customized versions are split over several files to minimize the page load.
Since browsers do not provide APIs to access font metrics, MathJax has to ship with the necessary font data; this font data is generated during development and cannot be generated on the fly. In addition, most fonts do not cover the relevant characters for mathematical layout. Finally, some fonts (e.g. Cambria Math) store important glyphs in special variant portions of the font, which require special handling to access from within a browser. These are the main reasons why MathJax is unable to support arbitrary fonts at this time.
Font configuration¶
Page authors can configure their font preference for each output format separately, see HTMLCSS output processor and SVG output processor. MathJax will download the necessary webfonts and fontdata dynamically and only those files necessary for the content.
For the HTMLCSS output, MathJax will download webfonts in the appropriate webfont format (depending on the client browser); for the SVG output, MathJax will download path data that corresponds to the fonts.
The HTMLCSS output processor will prefer
locally installed copies of the webfonts to minimize page load. Page authors
can set a preference via the availableFonts
and
preferredFont
options and they can configure the webfont via the
webFont
option. Please note that except for STIX General, the usual
distributions of the supported fonts do not work for technical reasons. You can
download the webfonts from the MathJax repository.
The SVG output processor will not use fonts
directly but rather uses derived SVG path data to draw paths
corresponding to characters. The page author can configure the font
via the font
option.
There is currently no method for switching fonts after MathJax has loaded. Similarly, page users cannot change the font configuration at this time except by installing their preferred fonts locally.
Character fallbacks¶
No font contains a suitable glyph for every character specified in the Unicode standard. When MathJax encounters a character the configured font does not support, it will fall back to other fonts in a variety of ways.
First, MathJax enhances Unicode coverage of its default TeX fonts,
e.g., combining two double integrals U+222C
when a quadrupel integral
U+2A0C
is used. However, this cannot create every character specified
in Unicode. Next, MathJax will run through a fallback chain within the
configured fonts (e.g., upright Greek will be substituted with italic Greek).
Finally, MathJax will ask the browser to provide the glyph from a system
font. Since in that final case, MathJax will not have the necessary data on the
glyph’s bounding box, MathJax will guess these metrics; this can negatively
affect layout and rendering speed.
Adding new fonts¶
As mentioned, MathJax needs pregenerated font data to support a fonts. This font data can be generated using the MathJax development tools.
Font mixing¶
Mixing multiple fonts is currently not supported. We hope to add support in the future.
MathJax Localization¶
As of version 2.2, MathJax’s user interface (including its contextual menu, its help and about dialog boxes, and its warning messages) can all be localized to appear in languages other than English. For the available language options, see the TranslateWiki.net interface.
The language used by MathJax can be selected using the MathJax contextual menu. It includes a Language submenu that lists the available languages; selecting one will change the MathJax user interface to use that language.
Page authors can select a default language for MathJax so that, for
example, a page that is written in French will have MathJax’s user
interface also in French. To do this, add &locale=XX
after the
configuration file in the <script>
tag that loads the MathJax.js
file, where XX
is the code for the language. For
example:
<script src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML&locale=fr"></script>
will load MathJax using the French language. Users can still override this setting using the Language submenu of the MathJax contextual menu. This submenu can be disabled, however, using the MathMenu configuration options.
If you want to help in the translation process, please visit the TranslateWiki.net interface. The page localization.html is a convenient way to check the different translations.
MathJax Safemode¶
MathML includes the ability to specify hyperlinks within your
mathematics, and such links could be made to javascript:
URL’s.
For example, the expression
<math>
<mtext href="javascript:alert('Hello!')">Click Me</mtext>
</math>
would display the words “Click Me” that when clicked would generate an alert message in the browser. This is a powerful feature that provides authors the ability to tie actions to mathematical expressions.
Similarly, MathJax provides an HTML extension for the TeX language that allows you to include hyperlinks in your TeX formulas:
$E \href{javascript:alert("Einstein says so!")}{=} mc^2$
Here the equal sign will be a link that pops up the message about Einstein.
Both MathML and the HTML extension for TeX allow you to add CSS styles, classes, and id’s to your math elements as well. These features can be used to produce interactive mathematical expressions to help your exposition, improve student learning, and so on.
If you are using MathJax in a community setting, however, like a questionandanswer forum, a wiki, a blog with user comments, or other situations where your readers can enter mathematics, then your readers would be able to use such powerful tools to corrupt the page, or fool other readers into giving away sensitive information, or interrupt their reading experience in other ways. In such environments, you may want to limit these abilities so that your readers are protected form these kinds of malicious actions.
(Authors who are writing pages that don’t allow users to enter data on the site do not have to worry about such problems, as the only mathematical content will be their own. It is only when users can contribute to the page that you have to be careful.)
MathJax provides a Safe extension to help you limit your
contributors’ powers. There are two ways to load it. The easiest is
to add ,Safe
after the configuration file when you are loading
MathJax.js
:
<script src="https://example.com/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTML,Safe"></script>
This causes MathJax to load the TeXAMS_CHTML
configuration file,
and then the Safe
configuration, which adds the Safe extension to
your extensions
array so that it will be loaded with the other
extensions.
Alternatively, if you are using inline configuration, you could just
include "Safe.js"
in your extensions
array directly:
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jax: ["input/TeX","output/CommonHTML"],
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","Safe.js"]
});
</script>
<script src="https://example.com/MathJax.js"></script>
The Safe extension has a number of configuration options that let you finetune what is allowed and what is not. See the Safe extension options for details.
The MathJax Community¶
If you are an active MathJax user, you may wish to become involved in the wider community of MathJax users. The MathJax project maintains forums where users can ask questions about how to use MathJax, make suggestions about future features for MathJax, and present their own solutions to problems that they have faced. There is also a bugtracking system where you can report errors that you have found with MathJax in your environment.
Mailing Lists¶
If you need help using MathJax or you have solutions you want to share, please post to the MathJax Users Google Group. We try hard to answer questions quickly, and users are welcome to help with that as well. Also, users can post code snippets showing how they have used MathJax, so it may be a good place to find the examples you are looking for.
If you want to discuss MathJax development, please use the MathJax Dev Google Group. We made this group to discuss anything beyond what an enduser might be interested in, so if you have any suggestions or questions about MathJax performance, technology, or design, feel free to submit it to the group.
The community is only as good as the users who participate, so if you have something to offer, please take time to make a post on one of our groups.
If you want to follow just our press releases, please subscribe to our press list.
Issue tracking¶
Found a bug or want to suggest an improvement? Post it to our issue tracker. We monitor the tracker closely, and work hard to respond to problems quickly.
Before you create a new issue, however, please search the issues to see if it has already been reported. You could also be using an outdated version of MathJax, so be sure to upgrade your copy to verify that the problem persists in the latest version.
Documentation¶
The source for this documentation can be found on github. You can file bug reports on the documentation’s bug tracker and actively contribute to the public documentation wiki.
“Powered by MathJax”¶
If you are using MathJax and want to show your support, please consider using our “Powered by MathJax” badge.
Configuration Objects¶
The various components of MathJax, including its input and output
processors, its preprocessors, its extensions, and the MathJax core,
all can be configured through the config/default.js
file, or via a
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call (indeed, if you look closely, you
will see that config/default.js
is itself one big call to
MathJax.Hub.Config()
). Anything that is in
config/default.js
can be included inline to configure MathJax.
The structure that you pass to MathJax.Hub.Config()
is a
JavaScript object that includes name:value pairs giving the names of
parameters and their values, with pairs separated by commas. Be
careful not to include a comma after the last value, however, as some
browsers (namely Internet Explorer) will fail to process the
configuration if you do.
The MathJax components, like the TeX input processor, have their own sections in the configuration object labeled by the component name, and using an object as its value. That object is itself a configuration object made up of name:value pairs that give the configuration options for the component.
For example,
MathJax.Hub.Config({
showProcessingMessages: false,
jax: ["input/TeX", "output/HTMLCSS"],
TeX: {
TagSide: "left",
Macros: {
RR: '{\\bf R}',
bold: ['{\\bf #1}',1]
}
}
});
is a configuration that includes two settings for the MathJax Hub (one
for showProcessingMessages and one for the jax array), and a
configuration object for the TeX input processor. The latter includes
a setting for the TeX input processor’s TagSide option (to set tags
on the left rather than the right) and a setting for Macros, which
defines new TeX macros (in this case, two macros, one called \RR
that produces a bold “R”, and one called \bold
that puts is
argument in bold face).
The config/default.js
file is another example that shows nearly
all the configuration options for all of MathJax’s components.
The Core Configuration Options¶
The options below control the MathJax Hub, and so determine the code behavior of MathJax. They are given with their default values.

jax: ["input/TeX","output/HTMLCSS"]
A commaseparated list of input and output jax to initialize at startup. Their main code is loaded only when they are actually used, so it is not inefficient to include jax that may not actually be used on the page. These are found in the
MathJax/jax
directory.

extensions: []
A commaseparated list of extensions to load at startup. The default directory is
MathJax/extensions
. Thetex2jax
andmml2jax
preprocessors can be listed here, as well as aFontWarnings
extension that you can use to inform your user that mathematics fonts are available that they can download to improve their experience of your site.

config: []
A commaseparated list of configuration files to load when MathJax starts up, e.g., to define local macros, etc., and there is a sample config file named
config/local/local.js
. The default directory is the MathJax/config directory. TheMMLorHTML.js
configuration is one such configuration file, and there are a number of other predefined configurations (see Using a configuration file for more details).

styleSheets: []
A commaseparated list of CSS stylesheet files to be loaded when MathJax starts up. The default directory is the MathJax/config directory.

styles: {}
CSS styles to be defined dynamically at startup time. These are in the form selector:rules (see CSS Style Objects for complete details).

preJax: null and postJax: null
Patterns to remove from before and after math script tags. If you are not using one of the preprocessors, you need to insert something extra into your HTML file in order to avoid a bug in Internet Explorer. IE removes spaces from the DOM that it thinks are redundant, and since a
<script>
tag usually doesn’t add content to the page, if there is a space before and after a MathJax<script>
tag, IE will remove the first space. When MathJax inserts the typeset mathematics, this means there will be no space before it and the preceding text. In order to avoid this, you should include some “guard characters” before or after the math SCRIPT tag; define the patterns you want to use below. Note that these are used as part of a regular expression, so you will need to quote special characters. Furthermore, since they are javascript strings, you must quote javascript special characters as well. So to obtain a backslash, you must use\\
(doubled for javascript). For example,"\\["
represents the pattern\[
in the regular expression, or[
in the text of the web page. That means that if you want an actual backslash in your guard characters, you need to use"\\\\"
in order to get\\
in the regular expression, and\
in the actual text. If bothpreJax
andpostJax
are defined, both must be present in order to be removed.See also the
preRemoveClass
comments below.Examples:
preJax: "\\\\\\\\\"
makes a double backslash thepreJax
textpreJax: "\\[\\[", postJax: "\\]\\]"
makes it so jax scripts must be enclosed in double brackets.

preRemoveClass: "MathJax_Preview"
This is the CSS class name for math previews that will be removed preceding a MathJax SCRIPT tag. If the tag just before the MathJax
<script>
tag is of this class, its contents are removed when MathJax processes the<script>
tag. This allows you to include a math preview in a form that will be displayed prior to MathJax performing its typesetting. It also avoids the Internet Explorer spaceremoval bug, and can be used in place ofpreJax
andpostJax
if that is more convenient.For example
<span class="MathJax_Preview">[math]</span><script type="math/tex">...</script>
would display “[math]” in place of the math until MathJax is able to typeset it.
See also the
preJax
andpostJax
comments above.

showProcessingMessages: true
This value controls whether the Processing Math: nn% messages are displayed in the lower lefthand corner. Set to
false
to prevent those messages (though file loading and other messages will still be shown).

messageStyle: "normal"
This value controls the verbosity of the messages in the lower lefthand corner. Set it to
"none"
to eliminate all messages, or set it to"simple"
to show “Loading…” and “Processing…” rather than showing the full file name or the percentage of the mathematics processed.

displayAlign: "center" and displayIndent: "0em"
These two parameters control the alignment and shifting of displayed equations. The first can be
"left"
,"center"
, or"right"
, and determines the alignment of displayed equations. When the alignment is not"center"
, the second determines an indentation from the left or right side for the displayed equations.

delayStartupUntil: "none"
Normally MathJax will perform its startup commands (loading of configuration, styles, jax, and so on) as soon as it can. If you expect to be doing additional configuration on the page, however, you may want to have it wait until the page’s onload handler is called. If so, set this to
"onload"
. You can also set this to"configured"
, in which case, MathJax will delay its startup until you explicitly callMathJax.Hub.Configured()
. See Configuring MathJax after it is loaded for more details.

skipStartupTypeset: false
Normally MathJax will typeset the mathematics on the page as soon as the page is loaded. If you want to delay that process, in which case you will need to call
MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
yourself by hand, set this value totrue
.

elements: []
This is a list of DOM element ID’s that are the ones to process for mathematics when any of the Hub typesetting calls (
Typeset()
,Process()
,Update()
, etc.) are called with no element specified, and during MathJax’s initial typesetting run when it starts up. This lets you restrict the processing to particular containers rather than scanning the entire document for mathematics. If none are supplied, the complete document is processed.

positionToHash: true
Since typesetting usually changes the vertical dimensions of the page, if the URL contains an anchor position, then after the page is typeset, you may no longer be positioned at the correct position on the page. MathJax can reposition to that location after it completes its initial typesetting of the page. This value controls whether MathJax will reposition the browser to the
#hash
location from the page URL after typesetting for the page.

showMathMenu: true

showMathMenuMSIE: true
These control whether to attach the MathJax contextual menu to the expressions typeset by MathJax. Since the code for handling MathPlayer in Internet Explorer is somewhat delicate, it is controlled separately via
showMathMenuMSIE
, but the latter is now deprecated in favor of the MathJax contextual menu settings for MathPlayer (see below).If
showMathMenu
istrue
, then rightclicking (on Windows or Linux) or controlclicking (on Mac OS X) will produce a MathJax menu that allows you to get the source of the mathematics in various formats, change the size of the mathematics relative to the surrounding text, get information about MathJax, and configure other MathJax settings.Set this to
false
to disable the menu. Whentrue
, theMathMenu
configuration block determines the operation of the menu. See the MathMenu options for more details.These values used to be listed in the separate output jax, but have been moved to this more central location since they are shared by all output jax. MathJax will still honor their values from their original positions, if they are set there.

menuSettings: { ... }
This block contains settings for the mathematics contextual menu that act as the defaults for the user’s settings in that menu. The possible values are:

zoom: "None"
This indicates when typeset mathematics should be zoomed. It can be set to
"None"
,"Hover"
,"Click"
, or"DoubleClick"
to set the zoom trigger.

CTRL: false, ALT: false, CMD: false, Shift: false
These values indicate which keys must be pressed in order for math zoom to be triggered. For example, if
CTRL
is set totrue
andzoom
is"Click"
, then math will be zoomed only when the user controlclicks on mathematics (i.e., clicks while holding down the CTRL key). If more than one istrue
, then all the indicated keys must be pressed for the zoom to occur.

zscale: "200%"
This is the zoom scaling factor, and it can be set to any of the values available in the Zoom Factor menu of the Settings submenu of the contextual menu.

context: "MathJax"
This controls what contextual menu will be presented when a right click (on a PC) or CTRLclick (on the Mac) occurs over a typeset equation. When set to
"MathJax"
, the MathJax contextual menu will appear; when set to"Browser"
, the browser’s contextual menu will be used. For example, in Internet Explorer with the MathPlayer plugin, if this is set to"Browser"
, you will get the MathPlayer contextual menu rather than the MathJax menu.

texHints: true
This controls whether the “Show Math as” menu item includes special class names that help MathJax to typeset the mathematics that was produced by the TeX input jax. If these are included, then you can take the output from “Show Math as” and put it into a page that uses MathJax’s MathML input jax and expect to get the same results as the original TeX. (Without this, there may be some spacing differences.)

inTabOrder: true
This controls whether math elements should be included in the tabindex. If set to
true
, MathJax will add tabindex=0`to the output. If set to ``false`, it will addtabindex="1"
. Developers are strongly discouraged from initially disabling this (by means of configuration) as it will render the menu inaccessible.

semantics: false
This controls whether the “Show Math as ⇒ MathML Code” menu item includes the TeX or AsciiMath input as annotations. If these are included, then you can take the output from “Show Math as ⇒ MathML” and put it into a page that uses MathJax’s MathML input jax and allow users to access the original input via “Show Math as ⇒ Annotation”.
There are also settings for
format
,renderer
,font
,mpContext
, andmpMouse
, but these are maintained by MathJax and should not be set by the page author.

errorSettings: { ... }
This block contains settings that control how MathJax responds to unexpected errors while processing mathematical equations. Rather than simply crash, MathJax can report an error and go on. The options you can set include:

message: ["[Math Processing Error]"]
This is an HTML snippet that will be inserted at the location of the mathematics for any formula that causes MathJax to produce an internal error (i.e., an error in the MathJax code itself). See the description of HTML snippets for details on how to represent HTML code in this way.

style: {color:"#CC0000", "fontstyle":"italic"}
This is the CSS style description to use for the error messages produced by internal MathJax errors. See the section on CSS style objects for details on how these are specified in JavaScript.


ignoreMMLattributes: { ... }
This block contains
attributeName: boolean
pairs that control which attributes should not be preserved from the original MathML. E.g.,id:true
will be ignored, whileid:false
will preserve all ids even if other criteria would normally prevent some ids from being copied to the output; use false carefully.

root: ""
This controls which URL base MathJax uses to load its components. By default, it is empty and filled in during the initialization process with the base URL from where
MathJax.js
was loaded.

v1.0compatible: true
This controls whether MathJax issues the warning about not having an explicit configuration in the event that the jax array is empty after configuration is complete. If you really intend that array to be empty, set this flag to
false
. Note that setting this to false does not cause a default configuration file to be loaded.
Preprocessor options¶
The tex2jax Preprocessor¶
The options below control the operation of the tex2jax preprocessor
that is run when you include "tex2jax.js"
in the extensions array
of your configuration. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a tex2jax
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)'] ]
}
});
would set the inlineMath
delimiters for the tex2jax
preprocessor.

inlineMath: [['\(','\)']]
Array of pairs of strings that are to be used as inline math delimiters. The first in each pair is the initial delimiter and the second is the terminal delimiter. You can have as many pairs as you want. For example,
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)'] ]
would cause tex2jax to look for
$...$
and\(...\)
as delimiters for inline mathematics. (Note that the single dollar signs are not enabled by default because they are used too frequently in normal text, so if you want to use them for math delimiters, you must specify them explicitly.)Note that the delimiters can’t look like HTML tags (i.e., can’t include the lessthan sign), as these would be turned into tags by the browser before MathJax has the chance to run. You can only include text, not tags, as your math delimiters.

displayMath: [ ['$$','$$'], ['\[','\]'] ]
Array of pairs of strings that are to be used as delimiters for displayed equations. The first in each pair is the initial delimiter and the second is the terminal delimiter. You can have as many pairs as you want.
Note that the delimiters can’t look like HTML tags (i.e., can’t include the lessthan sign), as these would be turned into tags by the browser before MathJax has the chance to run. You can only include text, not tags, as your math delimiters.

processEscapes: false
When set to
true
, you may use\$
to represent a literal dollar sign, rather than using it as a math delimiter. Whenfalse
,\$
will not be altered, and the dollar sign may be considered part of a math delimiter. Typically this is set totrue
if you enable the$ ... $
inline delimiters, so you can type\$
and tex2jax will convert it to a regular dollar sign in the rendered document.

processRefs: true
When set to
true
, MathJax will process\ref{...}
outside of math mode.

processEnvironments: true
When
true
, tex2jax looks not only for the inline and display math delimiters, but also for LaTeX environments (\begin{something}...\end{something}
) and marks them for processing by MathJax. Whenfalse
, LaTeX environments will not be processed outside of math mode.

preview: "TeX"
This controls whether tex2jax inserts
MathJax_Preview
spans to make a preview available, and what preview to use, when it locates inline or display mathematics in the page. The default is"TeX"
, which means use the TeX code as the preview (which will be visible until it is processed by MathJax). Set to"none"
to prevent previews from being inserted (the math will simply disappear until it is typeset). Set to an array containing the description of an HTML snippet in order to use the same preview for all equations on the page.Examples:
preview: ["[math]"], // insert the text "[math]" as the preview
preview: [["img",{src: "/images/mypic.jpg"}]], // insert an image as the preview
See the description of HTML snippets for details on how to represent HTML code in this way.

skipTags: ["script","noscript","style","textarea","pre","code"]
This array lists the names of the tags whose contents should not be processed by tex2jax (other than to look for ignore/process classes as listed below). You can add to (or remove from) this list to prevent MathJax from processing mathematics in specific contexts.

ignoreClass: "tex2jax_ignore"
This is the class name used to mark elements whose contents should not be processed by tex2jax (other than to look for the
processClass
pattern below). Note that this is a regular expression, and so you need to be sure to quote any regexp special characters. The pattern is inserted into one that requires your pattern to match a complete word, so settingignoreClass: "class2"
would cause it to match an element withclass="class1 class2 class3"
but notclass="myclass2"
. Note that you can assign several classes by separating them by the vertical line character (
). For instance, withignoreClass: "class1class2"
any element assigned a class of eitherclass1
orclass2
will be skipped.

processClass: "tex2jax_process"
This is the class name used to mark elements whose contents should be processed by tex2jax. This is used to restart processing within tags that have been marked as ignored via the
ignoreClass
or to cause a tag that appears in theskipTags
list to be processed rather than skipped. Note that this is a regular expression, and so you need to be sure to quote any regexp special characters. The pattern is inserted into one that requires your pattern to match a complete word, so settingprocessClass: "class2"
would cause it to match an element withclass="class1 class2 class3"
but notclass="myclass2"
. Note that you can assign several classes by separating them by the vertical line character (
). For instance, withprocessClass: "class1class2"
any element assigned a class of eitherclass1
orclass2
will have its contents processed.
The mml2jax Preprocessor¶
The options below control the operation of the mml2jax preprocessor
that is run when you include "mml2jax.js"
in the extensions array
of your configuration. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a mml2jax
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
mml2jax: {
preview: "mathml"
}
});
would set the preview
parameter to "mathml"
.

preview: "mathml"
This controls whether mml2jax inserts
MathJax_Preview
spans to make a preview available, and what preview to use, when it locates mathematics on the page. Possible values are:"mathml"
,"alttext"
, ,"altimg"
,"none"
, or an HTML snippet.The default is
"mathml"
, in which case MathJax keeps the content of the<math>
tag as the preview (until it is processed by MathJax). Set to"alttext"
, to use the<math>
tag’salttext
attribute as the preview, if the tag has one. Set to"altimg"
to use an image described by thealtimg*
attributes of the<math>
element. Set to"none"
to prevent the previews from being inserted (the math will simply disappear until it is typeset). Set to an array containing the description of an HTML snippet in order to use the same preview for all equations on the page (e.g., you could have it say"[math]"
or load an image).Examples:
preview: ["[math]"], // insert the text "[math]" as the preview
preview: [["img",{src: "/images/mypic.jpg"}]], // insert an image as the preview
See the description of HTML snippets for details on how to represent HTML code in this way.
The asciimath2jax Preprocessor¶
The options below control the operation of the asciimath2jax preprocessor
that is run when you include "asciimath2jax.js"
in the extensions array
of your configuration. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a asciimath2jax
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
asciimath2jax: {
delimiters: [['`','`'], ['$','$']]
}
});
would set the ASCIIMath delimiters for the asciimath2jax preprocessor to include dollar signs as well as backticks.

delimiters: [['`','`']]
Array of pairs of strings that are to be used as math delimiters. The first in each pair is the initial delimiter and the second is the terminal delimiter. You can have as many pairs as you want. For example,
delimiters: [ ['$','$'], ['`','`'] ]
would cause asciimath2jax to look for
$...$
and`...`
as delimiters for inline mathematics. (Note that the single dollar signs are not enabled by default because they are used too frequently in normal text, so if you want to use them for math delimiters, you must specify them explicitly.)Note that the delimiters can’t look like HTML tags (i.e., can’t include the lessthan sign), as these would be turned into tags by the browser before MathJax has the chance to run. You can only include text, not tags, as your math delimiters.

preview: "AsciiMath"
This controls whether asciimath2jax inserts
MathJax_Preview
spans to make a preview available, and what preview to use, when it locates inline or display mathematics in the page. The default is"AsciiMath"
, which means use the ASCIIMath code as the preview (which will be visible until it is processed by MathJax). Set to"none"
to prevent previews from being inserted (the math will simply disappear until it is typeset). Set to an array containing the description of an HTML snippet in order to use the same preview for all equations on the page.Examples:
preview: ["[math]"], // insert the text "[math]" as the preview
preview: [["img",{src: "/images/mypic.jpg"}]], // insert an image as the preview
See the description of HTML snippets for details on how to represent HTML code in this way.

skipTags: ["script","noscript","style","textarea","pre","code"]
This array lists the names of the tags whose contents should not be processed by asciimath2jax (other than to look for ignore/process classes as listed below). You can add to (or remove from) this list to prevent MathJax from processing mathematics in specific contexts.

ignoreClass: "asciimath2jax_ignore"
This is the class name used to mark elements whose contents should not be processed by asciimath2jax (other than to look for the
processClass
pattern below). Note that this is a regular expression, and so you need to be sure to quote any regexp special characters. The pattern is inserted into one that requires your pattern to match a complete word, so settingignoreClass: "class2"
would cause it to match an element withclass="class1 class2 class3"
but notclass="myclass2"
. Note that you can assign several classes by separating them by the vertical line character (
). For instance, withignoreClass: "class1class2"
any element assigned a class of eitherclass1
orclass2
will be skipped.

processClass: "asciimath2jax_process"
This is the class name used to mark elements whose contents should be processed by asciimath2jax. This is used to restart processing within tags that have been marked as ignored via the
ignoreClass
or to cause a tag that appears in theskipTags
list to be processed rather than skipped. Note that this is a regular expression, and so you need to be sure to quote any regexp special characters. The pattern is inserted into one that requires your pattern to match a complete word, so settingprocessClass: "class2"
would cause it to match an element withclass="class1 class2 class3"
but notclass="myclass2"
. Note that you can assign several classes by separating them by the vertical line character (
). For instance, withprocessClass: "class1class2"
any element assigned a class of eitherclass1
orclass2
will have its contents processed.
The jsMath2jax Preprocessor¶
The options below control the operation of the jsMath2jax
preprocessor that is run when you include "jsMath2jax.js"
in the
extensions array of your configuration. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a jsMath2jax
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
jsMath2jax: {
preview: "none"
}
});
would set the preview
parameter to "none"
.

preview: "TeX"
This controls whether jsMath2jax inserts
MathJax_Preview
spans to make a preview available, and what preview to use, when it locates inline or display mathematics in the page. The default is"TeX"
, which means use the TeX code as the preview (which will be visible until it is processed by MathJax). Set to"none"
to prevent previews from being inserted (the math will simply disappear until it is typeset). Set to an array containing the description of an HTML snippet in order to use the same preview for all equations on the page.Examples:
preview: ["[math]"], // insert the text "[math]" as the preview
preview: [["img",{src: "/images/mypic.jpg"}]], // insert an image as the preview
See the description of HTML snippets for details on how to represent HTML code in this way.
Input processor options¶
The TeX input processor¶
The options below control the operation of the TeX input processor
that is run when you include "input/TeX"
in the jax array of
your configuration or load a combined configuration file that includes
the TeX input jax. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a TeX
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
TeX: {
Macros: {
RR: '{\\bf R}',
bold: ['{\\bf #1}', 1]
}
}
});
would set the Macros
configuration option to cause two new macros
to be defined within the TeX input processor.

TagSide: "right"
This specifies the side on which
\tag{}
macros will place the tags. Set it to"left"
to place the tags on the lefthand side.

TagIndent: ".8em"
This is the amount of indentation (from the right or left) for the tags produced by the
\tag{}
macro.

MultLineWidth: "85%"
The width to use for the multline environment that is part of the
AMSmath
extension. This width gives room for tags at either side of the equation, but if you are displaying mathematics in a small area or a thin column of text, you might need to change the value to leave sufficient margin for tags.

equationNumbers: {}
This object controls the automatic equation numbering and the equation referencing. It contains the following values:

autoNumber: "none"
This controls whether equations are numbered and how. By default it is set to
"none"
to be compatible with earlier versions of MathJax where autonumbering was not performed (so pages will not change their appearance). You can change this to"AMS"
for equations numbered as the AMSmath package would do, or"all"
to get an equation number for every displayed equation.

formatNumber: function (n) {return n}
A function that tells MathJax what tag to use for equation number
n
. This could be used to have the equations labeled by a sequence of symbols rather than numbers, or to use section and subsection numbers instead.

formatTag: function (n) {return '('+n+')'}
A function that tells MathJax how to format an equation number for displaying as a tag for an equation. This is what appears in the margin of a tagged or numbered equation.

formatID: function {return 'mjxeqn'+String(n).replace(/s/g,"_")}
A function that rells MathJax what ID to use as an anchor for the equation (so that it can be used in URL references).

formatURL: function (id,base) {return base+'#'+encodeURIComponent(id)}
A function that takes an equation ID and base URL and returns the URL to link to it.

useLabelIds: true
This controls whether element ID’s use the
\label
name or the equation number. Whentrue
, use the label, whenfalse
, use the equation number.
See the MathJax examples page for some examples of equation numbering.


Macros: {}
This lists macros to define before the TeX input processor begins. These are name:value pairs where the name gives the name of the TeX macro to be defined, and value gives the replacement text for the macro. The value can be an array of the form [value,n], where value is the replacement text and n is the number of parameters for the macro. Note that since the value is a javascript string, backslashes in the replacement text must be doubled to prevent them from acting as javascript escape characters.
For example,
Macros: { RR: '{\\bf R}', bold: ['{\\bf #1}', 1] }
would ask the TeX processor to define two new macros:
\RR
, which produces a boldface “R”, and\bold{...}
, which takes one parameter and sets it in the boldface font.

MAXMACROS: 10000
Because a definition of the form
\def\x{\x} \x
would cause MathJax to loop infinitely, the MAXMACROS constant will limit the number of macro substitutions allowed in any expression processed by MathJax.

MAXBUFFER: 5*1024
Because a definition of the form
\def\x{\x aaa} \x
would loop infinitely, and at the same time stack up lots of a’s in MathJax’s equation buffer, the MAXBUFFER constant is used to limit the size of the string being processed by MathJax. It is set to 5KB, which should be sufficient for any reasonable equation.
The MathML input processor¶
The options below control the operation of the MathML input processor
that is run when you include "input/MathML"
in the jax array of
your configuration or load a combined configuration file that includes
the MathML input jax. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a MathML
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathML: {
useMathMLspacing: true
}
});
would set the useMathMLspacing
option so that the MathML rules for
spacing would be used (rather than TeX spacing rules).

useMathMLspacing: false
Specifies whether to use TeX spacing or MathML spacing when the HTMLCSS output jax is used.
The AsciiMath input processor¶
The options below control the operation of the AsciiMath input
processor that is run when you include "input/AsciiMath"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file that includes the AsciiMath input jax. They are listed with
their default values. To set any of these options, include a
AsciiMath
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For
example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
AsciiMath: {
fixphi: true,
useMathMLspacing: true,
displaystyle: false,
decimalsign: "."
}
});
would set the displaystyle
configuration option so that the limits
for operators like summation symbols will appear next to them rather
than above and below.

fixphi: true
Determines whether MathJax will switch the Unicode values for
phi
andvarphi
. If set totrue
MathJax will use the TeX mapping, otherwise the Unicode mapping.

useMathMLspacing: true
Determines whether MathJax will use MathML spacing. Set to
false
to get TeXlike spacing.

displaystyle: true
Determines whether operators like summation symbols will have their limits above and below the operators (true) or to their right (false). The former is how they would appear in displayed equations that appear on their own lines, while the latter is better suited to inline equations so that they don’t interfere with the line spacing so much.

decimalsign: "."
This is the character to be used for decimal points in numbers. if you change this to
","
, then you need to be careful about entering points or intervals. E.g., use(1, 2)
rather than(1,2)
in that case.
Output processor options¶
The CommonHTML output processor¶
The options below control the operation of the CommonHTML output
processor that is run when you include "output/CommonHTML"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file that includes the CommonHTML output jax. They are listed with their default
values. To set any of these options, include an CommonHTML
section
in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
CommonHTML: {
scale: 120
}
});
would set the scale
option to 120%.

scale: 100
The scaling factor (as a percentage) of math with respect to the surrounding text. The CommonHTML output processor tries to match the exsize of the mathematics with that of the text where it is placed, but you may want to adjust the results using this scaling factor. The user can also adjust this value using the contextual menu item associated with the typeset mathematics.

minScaleAdjust: 50
This gives a minimum scale (as a percent) for the scaling used by MathJax to match the equation to the surrounding text. This will prevent MathJax from making the mathematics too small.

mtextFontInherit: false
This setting controls whether
<mtext>
elements will be typeset using the math fonts or the font of the surrounding text. Whenfalse
, the font formathvariant="normal"
will be used; whentrue
, the font will be inherited from the surrounding paragraph.

linebreaks: {}
This is an object that configures automatic linebreaking in the CommonHTML output. In order to be backward compatible with earlier versions of MathJax, only explicit line breaks are performed by default, so you must enable line breaks if you want automatic ones. The object contains the following values:

automatic: false
This controls the automatic breaking of expressions: when
false
, onlylinebreak="newline"
is processed; whentrue
, line breaks are inserted automatically in long expressions.

width: "container"
This controls how wide the lines of mathematics can be.
Use an explicit width like
"30em"
for a fixed width. Use"container"
to compute the size from the containing element. Use"nn% container"
for a portion of the container. Use"nn%"
for a portion of the window size.The containerbased widths may be slower, and may not produce the expected results if the layout width changes due to the removal of previews or inclusion of mathematics during typesetting.

The HTMLCSS output processor¶
The options below control the operation of the HTMLCSS output
processor that is run when you include "output/HTMLCSS"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file that includes the HTMLCSS output jax. They are listed with
their default values. To set any of these options, include a
"HTMLCSS"
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
Note that, because of the dash, you need to enclose the name in
quotes. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"HTMLCSS": {
preferredFont: "STIX"
}
});
would set the preferredFont
option to the STIX fonts.

scale: 100
The scaling factor (as a percentage) of math with respect to the surrounding text. The HTMLCSS output processor tries to match the exsize of the mathematics with that of the text where it is placed, but you may want to adjust the results using this scaling factor. The user can also adjust this value using the contextual menu item associated with the typeset mathematics.

minScaleAdjust: 50
This gives a minimum scale (as a percent) for the scaling used by MathJax to match the equation to the surrounding text. This will prevent MathJax from making the mathematics too small.

availableFonts: ["STIX","TeX"]
This is a list of the fonts to look for on a user’s computer in preference to using MathJax’s webbased fonts. These must correspond to directories available in the
jax/output/HTMLCSS/fonts
directory, where MathJax stores data about the characters available in the fonts. Set this to["TeX"]
, for example, to prevent the use of the STIX fonts, or set it to an empty list,[]
, if you want to force MathJax to use webbased or image fonts.

preferredFont: "TeX"
Which font to prefer out of the
availableFonts
list, when more than one is available on the user’s computer. Set it tonull
if you want MathJax to use webbased or image fonts.

webFont: "TeX"
This is the webbased font to use when none of the fonts listed above are available on the user’s computer. The possible values are
TeX
,STIXWeb
,AsanaMath
,NeoEuler
,GyrePagella
,GyreTermes
andLatinModern
. Note that not all mathematical characters are available in all fonts (e.g., NeoEuler does not include italic characters), so some mathematics may work better in some fonts than in others. TheSTIXWeb
font is the most complete.These fonts are stored in the
fonts/HTMLCSS
folder in the MathJax directory. Set this tonull
to disable web fonts.

fonts: ["TeX", "STIX"]
This is a shortcut to setting
availableFonts
,preferredFont
, andwebFont
all at once. The list becomes theavailableFonts
list, and the first one is used for thepreferrredFont
andwebFont
values.

imageFont: "TeX"
This is the font to use for image fallback mode (when none of the fonts listed above are available and the browser doesn’t support webfonts via the
@fontface
CSS directive). Note that currently only the TeX font is available as an image font (they are stored in thefonts/HTMLCSS
directory).Set this to
null
if you want to prevent the use of image fonts (e.g., you have deleted or not installed the image fonts on your server). In this case, only browsers that support webbased fonts will be able to view your pages without having the fonts installed on the client computer. The browsers that support webbased fonts include: IE6 and later, Chrome, Safari3.1 and above, Firefox3.5 and later, and Opera10 and later. Note that Firefox3.0 is not on this list.

undefinedFamily: "STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS', serif"
This is the fontfamily CSS value used for characters that are not in the selected font (e.g., for webbased fonts, this is where to look for characters not included in the MathJax web fonts). IE will stop looking after the first font that exists on the system (even if it doesn’t contain the needed character), so order these carefully.

mtextFontInherit: false
This setting controls whether
<mtext>
elements will be typeset using the math fonts or the font of the surrounding text. Whenfalse
, the font formathvariant="normal"
will be used; whentrue
, the font will be inherited from the surrounding paragraph.

EqnChunk: 50

EqnChunkFactor: 1.5

EqnChunkDelay: 100
These values control how “chunky” the display of mathematical expressions will be; that is, how often the equations will be updated as they are processed.
EqnChunk
is the number of equations that will be typeset before they appear on screen. Larger values make for less visual flicker as the equations are drawn, but also mean longer delays before the reader sees anything.EqChunkFactor
is the factor by which theEqnChunk
will grow after each chunk is displayed.EqChunkDelay
is the time (in milliseconds) to delay between chunks (to allow the browser to respond to other user interaction).Set
EqnChunk
to 1,EqnChunkFactor
to 1, andEqnChunkDelay
to 10 to get the behavior from MathJax v1.1 and below.

matchFontHeight: true
This option indicates whether MathJax should try to adjust the xheight of equations to match the xheight of the surrounding text. See the MatchWebFonts options for finer control, especially if you are using Web fonts.

linebreaks: {}
This is an object that configures automatic linebreaking in the HTMLCSS output. In order to be backward compatible with earlier versions of MathJax, only explicit line breaks are performed by default, so you must enable line breaks if you want automatic ones. The object contains the following values:

automatic: false
This controls the automatic breaking of expressions: when
false
, onlylinebreak="newline"
is processed; whentrue
, line breaks are inserted automatically in long expressions.

width: "container"
This controls how wide the lines of mathematics can be.
Use an explicit width like
"30em"
for a fixed width. Use"container"
to compute the size from the containing element. Use"nn% container"
for a portion of the container. Use"nn%"
for a portion of the window size.The containerbased widths may be slower, and may not produce the expected results if the layout width changes due to the removal of previews or inclusion of mathematics during typesetting.


styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the HTMLCSS output. See the definitions in
jax/output/HTMLCSS/config.js
for some examples of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.

showMathMenu: true
This value has been moved to the core configuration block, since it applies to all output jax, but it will still be honored (for now) if it is set here. See the Core configuration options for more details.

tooltip: { ... }
This sets the configuration options for
<maction>
elements withactiontype="tooltip"
. (See also the#MathJax_Tooltip
style setting injax/output/HTMLCSS/config.js
, which can be overridden using thestyles
option above.)The
tooltip
section can contain the following options:
delayPost: 600
The delay (in milliseconds) before the tooltip is posted after the mouse is moved over the
maction
element.

delayClear: 600
The delay (in milliseconds) before the tooltop is cleared after the mouse moves out of the
maction
element.

offsetX: 10

offsetY: 5
These are the offset from the mouse position (in pixels) where the tooltip will be placed.


noReflows: true
This value determines if the HTMLCSS output makes additional measurements during layout for better layout quality, in particular with respect to unknown Unicode characters. As these measurements require reflow setting this to
false
will reduce performance but can help resolve layout issues.
The NativeMML output processor¶
The options below control the operation of the NativeMML output
processor that is run when you include "output/NativeMML"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file taht includes the NativeMML output jax. They are listed with
their default values. To set any of these options, include a
NativeMML
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For
example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
NativeMML: {
scale: 105
}
});
would set the scale
option to 105 percent.

scale: 100
The scaling factor (as a percentage) of math with respect to the surrounding text. The NativeMML output processor tries to match the exsize of the mathematics with that of the text where it is placed, but you may want to adjust the results using this scaling factor. The user can also adjust this value using the contextual menu item associated with the typeset mathematics.

minScaleAdjust: 50
This gives a minimum scale (as a percent) for the scaling used by MathJax to match the equation to the surrounding text. This will prevent MathJax from making the mathematics too small.

matchFontHeight: true
This option indicates whether MathJax should try to adjust the xheight of equations to match the xheight of the surrounding text. See the MatchWebFonts options for finer control, especially if you are using Web fonts.

showMathMath: true

showMathMenuMSIE: true
These values have been moved to the core configuration block, since it applies to all output jax, but they will still be honored (for now) if it is set here. See the Core configuration options for more details.

styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the NativeMML output. See the definitions in
jax/output/NativeMML/config.js
for some examples of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.
The SVG output processor¶
The options below control the operation of the SVG output
processor that is run when you include "output/SVG"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file that includes the SVG output jax. They are listed with their default
values. To set any of these options, include an SVG
section
in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
SVG: {
scale: 120
}
});
would set the scale
option to 120%.

scale: 100
The scaling factor (as a percentage) of math with respect to the surrounding text. The SVG output processor tries to match the exsize of the mathematics with that of the text where it is placed, but you may want to adjust the results using this scaling factor. The user can also adjust this value using the contextual menu item associated with the typeset mathematics.

minScaleAdjust: 50
This gives a minimum scale (as a percent) for the scaling used by MathJax to match the equation to the surrounding text. This will prevent MathJax from making the mathematics too small.

font: "TeX"
This is the font to use for rendering the mathematics. The possible values are
TeX
,STIXWeb
,AsanaMath
,NeoEuler
,GyrePagella
,GyreTermes
andLatinModern
. Note that not all mathematical characters are available in all fonts (e.g., NeoEuler does not include italic characters), so some mathematics may work better in some fonts than in others. TheSTIXWeb
font is the most complete.

blacker: 1
This is the stroke width to use for all character paths (1em = 1000 units). This is a cheap way of getting slightly lighter or darker characters, but remember that not all displays will act the same, so a value that is good for you may not be good for everyone.

undefinedFamily: "STIXGeneral, 'Arial Unicode MS', serif"
This is the fontfamily CSS value used for characters that are not in the selected font (e.g., this is where to look for characters not included in the MathJax TeX fonts). IE will stop looking after the first font that exists on the system (even if it doesn’t contain the needed character), so order these carefully.

mtextFontInherit: false
This setting controls whether
<mtext>
elements will be typeset using the math fonts or the font of the surrounding text. Whenfalse
, the font formathvariant="normal"
will be used; whentrue
, the font will be inherited from the surrounding paragraph.

addMMLclasses: false
This controls whether the MathML structure is retained and CSS classes are added to mark the original MathML elements (as in the output from the HTMLCSS output jax). By default, the SVG output jax removes unneeded nesting in order to produce a more efficient markup, but if you want to use CSS to style the elements as if they were MathML, you might need to set this to true.

useFontCache: true
This controls whether the SVG output uses
<use>
elements to reuse font paths rather than repeat paths every time. IfuseGlobalCache
(see below) is set tofalse
, this will still reduce duplication of paths while keeping each SVG selfcontained.

useGlobalCache: true
When set to
true
the SVG Output stores paths (corresponding to “fonts” in the SVG output) in a global SVG object using<defs>
elements so that it can reuse them in all equations via<use>
elements (much like a font file allows reuse of characters across the document). While set totrue
by default, it will have no effect ifuseFontCache
is set tofalse
.

EqnChunk: 50

EqnChunkFactor: 1.5

EqnChunkDelay: 100
These values control how “chunky” the display of mathematical expressions will be; that is, how often the equations will be updated as they are processed.
EqnChunk
is the number of equations that will be typeset before they appear on screen. Larger values make for less visual flicker as the equations are drawn, but also mean longer delays before the reader sees anything.EqChunkFactor
is the factor by which theEqnChunk
will grow after each chunk is displayed.EqChunkDelay
is the time (in milliseconds) to delay between chunks (to allow the browser to respond to other user interaction).Set
EqnChunk
to 1,EqnChunkFactor
to 1, andEqnChunkDelay
to 10 to get the behavior from MathJax v1.1 and below.

matchFontHeight: true
This option indicates whether MathJax should try to adjust the xheight of equations to match the xheight of the surrounding text. See the MatchWebFonts options for finer control, especially if you are using Web fonts.

linebreaks: {}
This is an object that configures automatic linebreaking in the SVG output. In order to be backward compatible with earlier versions of MathJax, only explicit line breaks are performed by default, so you must enable line breaks if you want automatic ones. The object contains the following values:

automatic: false
This controls the automatic breaking of expressions: when
false
, onlylinebreak="newline"
is processed; whentrue
, line breaks are inserted automatically in long expressions.

width: "container"
This controls how wide the lines of mathematics can be.
Use an explicit width like
"30em"
for a fixed width. Use"container"
to compute the size from the containing element. Use"nn% container"
for a portion of the container. Use"nn%"
for a portion of the window size.The containerbased widths may be slower, and may not produce the expected results if the layout width changes due to the removal of previews or inclusion of mathematics during typesetting.


styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the SVG output. See the definitions in
jax/output/SVG/config.js
for some examples of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.

tooltip: { ... }
This sets the configuration options for
<maction>
elements withactiontype="tooltip"
. (See also the#MathJax_Tooltip
style setting injax/output/SVG/config.js
, which can be overridden using thestyles
option above.)The
tooltip
section can contain the following options:
delayPost: 600
The delay (in milliseconds) before the tooltip is posted after the mouse is moved over the
maction
element.

delayClear: 600
The delay (in milliseconds) before the tooltop is cleared after the mouse moves out of the
maction
element.

offsetX: 10

offsetY: 5
These are the offset from the mouse position (in pixels) where the tooltip will be placed.

The PreviewHTML output processor¶
The options below control the operation of the PreviewHTML output
processor that is run when you include "output/PreviewHTML"
in the
jax array of your configuration or load a combined configuration
file that includes the PreviewHTML output jax. They are listed with their default
values. To set any of these options, include an PreviewHTML
section
in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
PreviewHTML: {
scale: 120
}
});
would set the scale
option to 120%.

scale: 100
The scaling factor (as a percentage) of math with respect to the surrounding text. The PreviewHTML output processor tries to match the exsize of the mathematics with that of the text where it is placed, but you may want to adjust the results using this scaling factor. The user can also adjust this value using the contextual menu item associated with the typeset mathematics.

minScaleAdjust: 50
This gives a minimum scale (as a percent) for the scaling used by MathJax to match the equation to the surrounding text. This will prevent MathJax from making the mathematics too small.

mtextFontInherit: false
This setting controls whether
<mtext>
elements will be typeset using the math fonts or the font of the surrounding text. Whenfalse
, the font formathvariant="normal"
will be used; whentrue
, the font will be inherited from the surrounding paragraph.

linebreaks: {}
This is an object that configures automatic linebreaking in the PreviewHTML output. In order to be backward compatible with earlier versions of MathJax, only explicit line breaks are performed by default, so you must enable line breaks if you want automatic ones. The object contains the following values:

automatic: false
This controls the automatic breaking of expressions: when
false
, onlylinebreak="newline"
is processed; whentrue
, line breaks are inserted automatically in long expressions.

width: "container"
This controls how wide the lines of mathematics can be.
Use an explicit width like
"30em"
for a fixed width. Use"container"
to compute the size from the containing element. Use"nn% container"
for a portion of the container. Use"nn%"
for a portion of the window size.The containerbased widths may be slower, and may not produce the expected results if the layout width changes due to the removal of previews or inclusion of mathematics during typesetting.

The PlainSource output processor¶
The PlainSource output processor displays plain text input when possible. I.e., it will display the raw input data from TeX or Asciimath input, embedded TeX or AsciiMath annotations from MathML input, and MathML if neither annotation format is found.
The options below control the operation of the PlainSource output
processor that is run when you include "output/PlainSource"
in the
jax array of your configuration. They are listed with their default
values. To set any of these options, include an PlainSource
section
in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
PlainSource: {
styles: {
".MathJax_PlainSource_Display": {
"textalign": "center",
margin: ".75em 0px",
"whitespace": "pre"
}
}
}
});
would configure some CSS properties of the resulting HTML markup.

styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the PlainSource output. See the definitions in
jax/output/SVG/config.js
for some examples of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.
The MMLorHTML configuration options (Deprecated)¶
Warning
This extension has been deprecated in MathJax v2.6. See automatic selection of output processors for alternatives.
The options below control the operation of the MMLorHTML configuration
file that is run when you include "MMLorHTML.js"
in the config
array of your configuration, or when you use one of the combined
configuration files that ends with _HTMLorMML
. They are listed
with their default values. To set any of these options, include a
MMLorHTML
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For
example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MMLorHTML: {
prefer: {
Opera: "MML"
}
}
});
would set the prefer
option so that the Opera browser would prefer
MathML to HTMLCSS output (while leaving the settings for other
browsers unchanged).
Note that if you use the MMLorHTML.js
configuration file, you should
not specify an output processor in the jax array of your
configuration; MMLorHTML will fill that in for you.

prefer: {

MSIE: "MML",

Firefox: "HTML",

Safari: "HTML",

Chrome: "HTML",

Opera: "HTML",

other: "HTML"

}
This lets you set the preferred renderer on a browserbybrowser basis. You set the browser to either
"MML"
or"HTML"
depending on whether you want to use the NativeMML or HTMLCSS output processor. Note that although Opera and Safari do process some MathML natively, their support is not sufficient to handle the more complicated output generated by MathJax, so their settings are"HTML"
by default. Although Firefox does support a large subset of MathJax, it does not implement all the features needed by MathJax, and so it is also set to"HTML"
by default (this is new in v2.0).Note that users can still use the MathJax contextual menu to select a different renderer after the default one has been chosen by
MMLorHTML.js
.
MathJax produces MathML that models the underlying mathematics as best it can, rather than using complicated hacks to improve output for a particular MathML implementation. When you make the choice to use the NativeMML output processor, you are making a tradeoff: gaining speed at the expense of quality and reliability, a decision that should not be taken lightly.
Extension options¶
The Accessibility extensions¶
MathJax maintains a set of extensions for providing advanced accessibility features. These extensions are an official part of MathJax but are stored in a separate code repository.
The full documentation is available on GitHub and we summarize the options below.
Each accessibility extension can be loaded using the [a11y]
path variable. The following extensions have configuration options.
explorer.js¶
The Explorer extension provides exploration tools for subexpressions. It is the largest piece of the accessibility extensions, controlling highlighting, navigation and voicing.
MathJax.Hub.Config({
// ...your configuration options...
explorer: {
walker: 'syntactic', // none, syntactic, semantic
highlight: 'none', // none, hover, flame
background: 'blue', // blue, red, green, yellow, cyan, magenta, white, black
foreground: 'black', // black, white, magenta, cyan, yellow, green, red, blue
speech: true, // true, false
generation: 'lazy', // eager, mixed, lazy
subtitle: true, // true, false
ruleset: 'mathspeakdefault' // mathspeakdefault, mathspeakbrief, mathspeaksbrief, chromevoxdefault, chromevoxshort, chromevoxalternative
}
});
autocollapse.js¶
This extension will automatically collapse subexpressions
to allow the resulting equation to fit in the viewport width
and will react to changes in viewport width.
It will automatically load collapsible.js
(see below).
MathJax.Hub.Config({
// ...your configuration options...
"autocollapse": {
disabled: false;
}
});
collapsible.js¶
This extension generates a complexity metric and inserts elements that allow the expressions to be collapsed by the user by clicking on the expression based on that metric.
The extension only offers a configuration option to disable it.
MathJax.Hub.Config({
// ...your configuration options...
collapsible: {
disabled: false;
}
});
semanticenrich.js¶
This extension coordinates the creation and embedding of semantic information generated by the enrichment process within the MathJax output for use by the other extensions.
The extension only offers a configuration option to disable it.
MathJax.Hub.Config({
// ...your configuration options...
"semanticenrich": {
disabled: false;
}
});
The AssistiveMML.js extension¶
The options below control the operation of the AssistiveMML
extension that is run when you include "AssistiveMML.js"
in the
extensions array of your configuration. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a
AssistiveMML
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"AssistiveMML": {
disabled: false,
styles: {
".MJX_Assistive_MathML": {
position:"absolute!important",
clip: (HUB.Browser.isMSIE && (document.documentMode0) < 8 ?
"rect(1px 1px 1px 1px)" : "rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px)"),
padding: "1px 0 0 0!important",
border: "0!important",
height: "1px!important",
width: "1px!important",
overflow: "hidden!important",
display:"block!important"
}
}
}
})
would enable the extension and defines CSS Style Objects to define CSS applied to the MathML content embedded in the page.
See also Screenreader support.
Note
We strongly recommend using the more advanced Accessibility Extensions instead.
The fastpreview extension¶
The options below control the operation of the fastpreview
extension that is run when you include "fastpreview.js"
in the
extensions array of your configuration. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a
fastpreview
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"fastpreview": {
Chunks: {EqnChunk: 10000, EqnChunkFactor: 1, EqnChunkDelay: 0},
color: "inherit!important",
updateTime: 30, updateDelay: 6,
messageStyle: "none",
disabled: false
}
});
would ask for the PreviewHTML output to run as a preview (disabled: false
),
force inheritance of the surrounding text color, and set the updateTime
and
updateDelay
to low values (30ms / 6ms) to speed up
the preview pass. Furthermore, it configures the second pass to set the
chunking (Chunks
) to a reflow every 10,000 equations and disables the
progress messages (messageStyle
).
This extension provides a twopass rendering mode. A first, fastbutrough rendering is genereated as a preview, using the The PreviewHTML output processor, then a second pass using the configured output jax runs to update the preview output.
This twopass mode will provide the reader with a quick, decent rendering to start reading immediately, while silently updating that rendering with the high quality layout later.

EqnChunk: 10000

EqnChunkFactor: 1

EqnChunkDelay: 0
These values control how “chunky” the second pass will be. For more information see The HTMLCSS output processor and The SVG output processor.

color: "inherit!important"
This value allows you to choose a text color for the first passs.

updateTime: 30

updateDelay: 6
These values control how often the second pass will pause to allow user interaction (e.g., scrolling).

messageStyle: "none"
This value controls the verbosity of the processing messages during the the second pass; see The Core Configuration Options for more information.

disabled:false
This value enables or disables the preview mode. In particular, it allows overriding a combined configuration file, cf. Combined Configurations. The user can independently enable or disable the fast preview via the MathJax Menu.
The Content MathML extension¶
The options below control the operation of the Content MathML extension
that is run when you include "MathML/contentmathml.js"
in the extension
array of your configuration. They are listed with their default values. To
set any of these options, include a ContentMathML
section in your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"contentmathml": {
collapsePlusMinus: true,
cistyles: {
vector: 'bolditalic',
matrix: 'boldupright'
},
symbols: {
gamma: '\u03B3'
}
}
});
These options allow the following.

collapsePlusMinus: true,
Specifies whether a Plus followed by a Minus is collapsed, e.g.,
a+(b)
simplified toab
.

cistyles: {...}
Specifies which mathvariant to use with corresponding
<ci>
type attribute.

symbols: {...}
Specifies symbol names to translate to characters.
Further customization is possible by modifying its functions on the fly.
The handlefloats extension¶
The floats extension for the HTMLCSS output is run when you include
handlefloats.js
in the extension
array of the HTMLCSS section of your
MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example,
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"HTMLCSS": {
extensions: ["handlefloats.js"]
}
});
This extension allows HTMLCSS output to deal with floating elements better. In particular, when there are tags or equation numbers, these would overlap floating elements, but with this extension, the width of the line should properly correspond to the amount of space remaining.
The extension has no configuration options.
The MML3 extension¶
The experimental MML3 extension is run when you include mml3.js
in the
extension
array of the MathML section of your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example,
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathML: {
extensions: ["mml3.js"]
}
});
The extension provides experimental support for the socalled elementary math elements as well as experimental support for bidirectional math.
The extension has no configuration options.
The CHTMLpreview extension¶
Warning
This extension has been deprecated.
For backward compatibility, the CHTMLpreview extension loads The fastpreview extension.
Other options¶
The MathZoom extension¶
The options below control the operation of the MathZoom feature that
allows users to see an enlarged version of the mathematics when they
click or hover over typeset mathematics. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a MathZoom
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathZoom: {
styles: {
"#MathJax_Zoom": {
"backgroundcolor": "#0000F0"
}
}
}
});
would set the background color of the Zoom box to a very light blue.
Mathematics is zoomed when the user “triggers” the zoom by an action,
either clicking on the mathematics, doubleclicking on it, or holding
the mouse still over it (i.e., “hovering”). Which trigger is used is
set by the user via the math contextual menu (or by the author using
the menuSettings
configuration section of the core configuration
options).

delay: 500
This value is now stored as the
hover
parameter in the MathEvents configuration options, and will have no effect if given here.

styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the zoomed mathematics. See the definitions in
extensions/MathZoom.js
for details of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.
The MathEvents extension¶
The options below control the operation of the MathEvents component that
allows handles mouse and menu events attached to mathematics that is
typeset by MathJax. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a MathEvents
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MathEvents: {
hover: 400
}
});
would set the required delay for hovering over a math element to 400 milliseconds.

hover: 500
This value is the time (in milliseconds) that a user must hold the mouse still over a math element before it is considered to be hovering over the math.

styles: {}
This is a list of CSS declarations for styling the zoomed mathematics. See the definitions in
extensions/MathEvents.js
for details of what are defined by default. See CSS Style Objects for details on how to specify CSS style in a JavaScript object.
The FontWarnings extension¶
The options below control the operation of the FontWarnings
extension that is run when you include "FontWarnings.js"
in the
extensions array of your configuration. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a
FontWarnings
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
FontWarnings: {
fadeoutTime: 2*1000
}
});
would set the fadeoutTime
option to 2000 milliseconds (2 seconds).

messageStyle: { ... }
This sets the CSS styles to be used for the font warning message window. See the
extensions/FontWarnings.js
file for details of what are set by default. See the CSS style objects for details about how to specify CSS styles via javascript objects.

Message: { ... }
This block contains HTML snippets to be used for the various messages that the FontWarning extension can produce. There are three messages that you can redefine to suit your needs:

webFont: [ ... ]
The message used for when MathJax uses webbased fonts (rather than local fonts installed on the user’s system).

imageFonts: [ ... ]
The message used for when MathJax must use image fonts rather than local or webbased fonts (for those browsers that don’t handle the
@fontface
CSS directive).

noFonts: [ ... ]
The message used when MathJax is unable to find any font to use (i.e., neither local nor webbased nor imagebased fonts are available).
Any message that is set to
null
rather than an HTML snippet array will not be presented to the user, so you can set, for example, thewebFont
message tonull
in order to have theimageFonts
andnoFonts
messages, but no message if MathJax uses webbased fonts.See the description of HTML snippets for details about how to describe the messages using HTML snippets. Note that in addition to the usual rules for defining such snippets, the FontWarnings snippets can include references to predefined snippets (that represent elements common to all three messages). These are defined below in the
HTML
block, and are referenced using["name"]
within the snippet, where name is the name of one of the snippets defined in theHTML
configuration block. For exampleMessage: { noFonts: [ ["closeBox"], "MathJax is unable to locate a font to use to display ", "its mathematics, and image fonts are not available, so it ", "is falling back on generic unicode characters in hopes that ", "your browser will be able to display them. Some characters ", "may not show up properly, or possibly not at all.", ["fonts"], ["webfonts"] ] }
refers to the
closeBox
,fonts
andwebfonts
snippets declared in theHTML
section.

HTML: { ... }
This object defines HTML snippets that are common to more than one message in the
Message
section above. They can be included in other HTML snippets by by using["name"]
in an HTML snippet, where name refers to the name of the snippet in theHTML
block. The predefined snippets are:
closeBox
The HTML for the close box in the FontWarning message.

webfonts
The HTML for a paragraph suggesting an upgrade to a more modern browser that supports web fonts.

fonts
HTML that includes links to the MathJax and STIX font download pages.

STIXfonts
HTML that gives the download link for the STIX fonts only. (Used in place of fonts when the HTMLCSS option for availableFonts only includes the STIX fonts.)

TeXfonts
HTML that gives the download link for the MathJax TeX fonts only. (Used in place of fonts when the HTMLCSS option for availableFonts only includes the TeX fonts.)
You can add your own predefined HTML snippets to this object, or override the ones that are there with your own text.


removeAfter: 12*1000
This is the amount of time to show the FontWarning message, in milliseconds. The default is 12 seconds. Setting this value to zero means that the message will not fade out (the user must close it manually).

fadeoutSteps: 10
This is the number of steps to take while fading out the FontWarning message. More steps make for a smoother fadeout. Set to zero to cause the message to be removed without fading.

fadeoutTime: 1.5*1000
This is the time used to perform the fadeout, in milliseconds. The default is 1.5 seconds.
The Safe extension¶
The options below control the operation of the Safe extension that
is run when you include "Safe.js"
in the extensions array of
your configuration, or include Safe
in the config=
options
when you load MathJax.js
. They are listed with their default
values. To set any of these options, include a Safe
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call. For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
Safe: {
allow: {
URLs: "safe",
classes: "safe",
cssIDs: "safe",
styles: "safe",
fontsize: "all",
require: "safe"
}
}
});
would set the fontsize
option to "all"
, and the others to
"safe"
(these are described below).
The Safe extension affects both the TeX input and MathML input jax.

allow: { ... }
This block contains the flags that control what the Safe extension will allow, and what it will block. The flags can be set to
"all"
,"none"
, or"safe"
. When set to"all"
, no filtering is done for these values (this gives MathJax’s default behavior). When set to"none"
, these values are always filtered out. When set to"safe"
, then only some values are allowed, as described below.
URLs: "safe"
When set to
"safe"
only URL’s with protocols that are listed in thesafeProtocols
property (see below) are allowed as targets ofhref
attributes or the\href
macro. By default, these arehttp://
,https://
, andfile://
URL’s.

classes: "safe"
When set to
"safe"
, only class names that begin withMJX
and contain only letters, numbers, or the characters
,_
, or.
are allowed.

cssIDs: "safe"
When set to
"safe"
, only ID’s that begin withMJX
and contain only letters, numbers, or the characters
,_
, or.
are allowed.

styles: "safe"
When set to
"safe"
, only styles taken from a predefined set of styles are allowed to be given. These are listed in thesafeStyles
property (see below).

require: "safe"
When set to
"safe"
, only the extensions listed in thesafeRequire
property (see below) are allowed to be loaded by the\require{}
macro.

fontsize: "all"
When set to
"safe"
, MathJax will try to limit the font size to sizes between those given by thesizeMin
andsizeMax
properties. These are .7 and 1.44 by default, which means sizes between\scriptsize
and\large
are allowed. This also filters MathMLfontsize
,mathsize
, andscriptminsize
attributes, but here,"safe"
acts as"none"
, since they are given in sizes with units, and the actual size of the units is not determined at input time (it is part of the output processing). In addition, thescriptlevel
attribute is restricted to nonnegative values (so scripts can’t be made larger), and thescriptsizemultiplier
is restricted to being no larger than 1, and no less than .6.


sizeMin: .7
This is the minimum font size (in em’s) that the TeX input jax will allow when
fontsize
is set to"safe"
above. The default is the size of\scriptsize
. Values less than this are set to this value.

sizeMax: 1.44
This is the maximum font size (in em’s) that the TeX input jax will allow when
fontsize
is set to"safe"
above. The default is the size of\large
. Values larger than this are set to this value.

safeProtocols: {...}
This is an object that lists the protocols that can be used in
href
attributes and the\href
macro whenURLs
is set to"safe"
above. The default issafeProtocols: { http: true, https: true, file: true, javascript: false }
Note that if a protocol doesn’t appear in the list, it is assumed to be
false
, so technically,javascript
need not have been listed, but it is given to make it explicit that it should not be allowed.

safeStyles: {...}
This is an object that lists the style properties that can be used in MathML
style
attributes and the\style
and\bbox
macros whenstyles
is set to"safe"
in theallowed
property above. The default issafeStyles: { color: true, backgroundColor: true, border: true, cursor: true, margin: true, padding: true, textShadow: true, fontFamily: true, fontSize: true, fontStyle: true, fontWeight: true, opacity: true, outline: true }
Any style property that doesn’t appear on this list is not allowed to be entered and will be removed (silently) from the style definition.

safeRequire: {...}
This is an object that lists the TeX extensions that can be loaded via the
\require{}
macro whenrequire
is set to"safe"
in theallowed
property above. The default issafeRequire: { action: true, amscd: true, amsmath: true, amssymbols: true, autobold: false, "autoloadall": false, bbox: true, begingroup: true, boldsymbol: true, cancel: true, color: true, enclose: true, extpfeil: true, HTML: true, mathchoice: true, mhchem: true, newcommand: true, noErrors: false, noUndefined: false, unicode: true, verb: true }
These configuration options give you a lot of control over what actions MathJax is allowed to take. It is also possible override the individual filtering functions in order to customize the filtering even further, should that be needed. See the code for the details of the function names and their definitions.
The Match Web Fonts extension¶
The options below control the operation of the MatchWebFonts
extension that is run when you include "MatchWebFonts.js"
in the
extensions array of your configuration. They are listed with their
default values. To set any of these options, include a
MatchWebFonts
section in your MathJax.Hub.Config()
call.
For example
MathJax.Hub.Config({
MatchWebFonts: {
matchFor: {
"HTMLCSS": true,
NativeMML: false,
SVG: false
},
fontCheckDelay: 2000,
fontCheckTimeout: 30 * 1000
}
});
would ask to apply font size matching for the HTMLCSS output mode but not for the NativeMML or SVG modes. It would also tell the extension to wait 2 seconds before starting to look for web font arrivals, and to continue checking for 30 seconds.
This extension is designed for pages that have mathematics within text that is displayed using webfonts, and works around a basic problem of webfonts – a missing API. Webfonts often don’t appear until after a delay, and the browser will substitute another font until then; unfortunately there is no signal for when the font becomes available. Since the arrival of the webfonts can significantly change ex and em sizes (and MathJax checks these to match them with its own font size), this extension will check for changes of em and ex sizes (indicating the arrival of webfonts) and rerender equations if necessary.

matchFor: { ... }
This block controls whether to apply font size matching for each output mode.

"HTMLCSS": "true"
Whether to match the font size for the HTMLCSS output.

NativeMML: "true"
Whether to match the font size for the NativeMML output.

SVG: "true"
Whether to match the font size for the SVG output.


fontCheckDelay: 500
Initial delay before the first check for web fonts (in milliseconds).

fontCheckTimeout: 15 * 1000
How long to keep looking for fonts (in milliseconds).
Thirdparty Extensions¶
MathJax can load extensions (and configurations) from arbitrary locations. This allows authors and developers to easily integrate custom code.
Custom extension path configuration¶
Usually, thirdparty extensions have to be specified with their full
paths (and matching loadComplete
calls); this limits portability. To
simplify this process, the MathJax configuration can include (possibly
multiple) thirdparty locations for easier reference.
To specify the URL, set MathJax.Ajax.config.path["Extra"]
in your
configuration file, for example,
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Ajax.config.path["Extra"] = "https://my.extra.com/mathjax/extra";
</script>
or equivalently,
<script type="text/javascript">
window.MathJax = {
AuthorInit: function () {
MathJax.Ajax.config.path["Extra"] = "https://my.extra.com/mathjax/extra";
}
};
</script>
Configuring this path will allow you to load extensions using the [Extra]
prefix. To continue the example, the following configuration would then load
http://my.extra.com/mathjax/extra/spiffy.js
.
MathJax.Hub.Config({
extensions: ["[Extra]/spiffy.js"]
});
Note that the extension’s loadComplete
call needs to match this path,
i.e., spiffy.js
should end with
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[Extra]/spiffy.js");
MathJax ThirdParty extension repository¶
We collect a list of thirdparty extensions on Github at github.com/mathjax/MathJaxthirdpartyextensions. This repository allows developers to publicize their custom extensions easily.
Note
The mirrored copy on the MathJax CDN at cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/contrib/ has been retired alongside the MathJax CDN.
Note
You can disable the [Contrib]
path by loading MathJax with
noContrib
in the query string, e.g., MathJax.js?config=...&noContrib
The MathJax Processing Model¶
The purpose of MathJax is to bring the ability to include mathematics easily in web pages to as wide a range of browsers as possible. Authors can specify mathematics in a variety of formats (e.g., MathML, LaTeX, or AsciiMath), and MathJax provides highquality mathematical typesetting even in those browsers that do not have native MathML support. This all happens without the need for special downloads or plugins, but rendering will be enhanced if highquality math fonts (e.g., STIX) are available to the browser.
MathJax is broken into several different kinds of components: page preprocessors, input processors, output processors, and the MathJax Hub that organizes and connects the others. The input and output processors are called jax, and are described in more detail below.
When MathJax runs, it looks through the page for special tags that hold mathematics; for each such tag, it locates an appropriate input jax which it uses to convert the mathematics into an internal form (called an element jax), and then calls an output jax to transform the internal format into HTML content that displays the mathematics within the page. The page author configures MathJax by indicating which input and output jax are to be used.
Often, and especially with pages that are authored by hand, the
mathematics is not stored (initially) within the special tags needed
by MathJax, as that would require more notation than the average page
author is willing to type. Instead, it is entered in a form that is
more natural to the page author, for example, using the standard TeX
math delimiters $...$
and $$...$$
to indicate what part of the
document is to be typeset as mathematics. In this case, MathJax can
run a preprocessor to locate the math delimiters and replace them by
the special tags that it uses to mark the formulas. There are
preprocessors for TeX notation, MathML
notation, AsciiMath notation, and the jsMath notation that uses span and div tags.
For pages that are constructed programmatically, such as HTML
pages that result from running a processor on text in some other
format (e.g., pages produced from Markdown documents, or via programs
like tex4ht), it would be best to use MathJax’s special tags
directly, as described below, rather than having MathJax run
another preprocessor. This will speed up the final display of the
mathematics, since the extra preprocessing step would not be needed.
It also avoids the conflict between the use of the lessthan sign,
<
, in mathematics and as an HTML special character (that starts
an HTML tag), and several other issues involved in having the
mathematics directly in the text of the page (see the documentation on
the various input jax for more details on this).
How mathematics is stored in the page¶
In order to identify mathematics in the page, MathJax uses special
<script>
tags to enclose the mathematics. This is done because
such tags can be located easily, and because their content is not
further processed by the browser; for example, lessthan signs can be
used as they are in mathematics, without worrying about them being
mistaken for the beginnings of HTML tags. One may also consider the
math notation as a form of “script” for the mathematics, so a
<script>
tag makes at least some sense for storing the math.
Each <script>
tag has a type
attribute that identifies the
kind of script that the tag contains. The usual (and default) value
is type="text/javascript"
, and when a script has this type, the
browser executes the script as a javascript program. MathJax,
however, uses the type math/tex to identify mathematics in the TeX
and LaTeX notation, math/mml for mathematics in MathML notation, and
math/asciimath for mathematics in AsciiMath notation. When the
tex2jax, mml2jax, or asciimath2jax preprocessors run, they
create <script>
tags with these types so that MathJax can process
them when it runs its main typesetting pass.
For example,
<script type="math/tex">x+\sqrt{1x^2}</script>
represents an inline equation in TeX notation, and
<script type="math/tex; mode=display">
\sum_{n=1}^\infty {1\over n^2} = {\pi^2\over 6}
</script>
is a displayed TeX equation.
Alternatively, using MathML notation, you could use
<script type="math/mml">
<math>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<msqrt>
<mn>1</mn>
<mo>−<! − ></mo>
<msup>
<mi>x</mi>
<mn>2</mn>
</msup>
</msqrt>
</math>
</script>
for inline math, or
<script type="math/mml">
<math display="block">
<mrow>
<munderover>
<mo>∑<! ∑ ></mo>
<mrow>
<mi>n</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
<mi mathvariant="normal">∞<! ∞ ></mi>
</munderover>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mfrac>
<mn>1</mn>
<msup>
<mi>n</mi>
<mn>2</mn>
</msup>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow>
<mfrac>
<msup>
<mi>π<! π ></mi>
<mn>2</mn>
</msup>
<mn>6</mn>
</mfrac>
</mrow>
</math>
</script>
for displayed equations in MathML notation. As other input jax are created, they will use other types to identify the mathematics they can process.
Page authors can use one of MathJax’s preprocessors to convert from
math delimiters that are more natural for the author to type (e.g.,
TeX math delimiters like $$...$$
) to MathJax’s <script>
format. Blog and wiki software could extend their own markup
languages to include math delimiters, which they could convert to
MathJax’s <script>
format automatically.
Note, however, that Internet Explorer (version 8 and belowhas a bug
that causes it to remove the space before a <script>
tag if there
is also a space after it, which can cause serious spacing problems
with inline math in Internet Explorer. There are three possible
solutions to this in MathJax. The recommended way is to use a math
preview (an element with class MathJax_Preview
) that is nonempty
and comes right before the <script>
tag. Its contents can be just
the word [math]
, so it does not have to be specific to the
mathematics script that follows; it just has to be nonempty (though
it could have its style set to display:none
). See also the
preJax
and postJax
options in the Core Configuration
Options document for another approach.
The components of MathJax¶
The main components of MathJax are its preprocessors, its input and output jax, and the MathJax Hub, which coordinates the actions of the other components.
Input jax are associated with the different script types (like math/tex or math/mml) and the mapping of a particular type to a particular jax is made when the various jax register their abilities with the MathJax Hub at configuration time. For example, the MathML input jax registers the math/mml type, so MathJax will know to call the MathML input jax when it sees math elements of that type. The role of the input jax is to convert the math notation entered by the author into the internal format used by MathJax (called an element jax). This internal format is essentially MathML (represented as JavaScript objects), so an input jax acts as a translator into MathML.
Output jax convert that internal element jax format into a specific output format. For example, the NativeMML output jax inserts MathML tags into the page to represent the mathematics, while the HTMLCSS output jax uses HTML with CSS styling to lay out the mathematics so that it can be displayed even in browsers that don’t understand MathML. MathJax also has an SVG output jax that will render the mathematics using scalable vector graphics. Output jax could be produced that render the mathematics using HTML5 canvas elements, for example, or that speak an equation for blind users. The MathJax contextual menu can be used to switch between the output jax that are available.
Each input and output jax has a small configuration file that is
loaded when that input jax is included in the jax array in the
MathJax configuration, and a larger file that implements the core
functionality of that particular jax. The latter file is loaded the
first time the jax is needed by MathJax to process some mathematics.
Most of the combined configuration files include only the small
configuration portion for the input and output jax, making the
configuraiton file smaller and faster to load for those pages that
don’t actually include mathematics; the combined configurations that
end in full
include both parts of the jax, so there is no delay
when the math is to be rendered, but at the expense of a larger
initial download.
The MathJax Hub keeps track of the internal representations of the various mathematical equations on the page, and can be queried to obtain information about those equations. For example, one can obtain a list of all the math elements on the page, or look up a particular one, or find all the elements with a given input format, and so on. In a dynamically generated web page, an equation where the source mathematics has changed can be asked to rerender itself, or if a new paragraph is generated that might include mathematics, MathJax can be asked to process the equations it contains.
The Hub also manages issues concerning mouse events and other user interaction with the equation itself. Parts of equations can be made active so that mouse clicks cause event handlers to run, or activate hyperlinks to other pages, and so on, making the mathematics as dynamic as the rest of the page.
The MathJax Startup Sequence¶
When you load MathJax.js
into a web page, it configures itself and
immediately begins loading the components it needs. As MathJax starts
up, it uses its signaling mechanism
to indicate the actions that it is taking so that MathJax extensions
can tie into the initialization process, and so other applications
within the page can synchronize their actions with MathJax.
The startup process performs the following actions:
 It creates the
MathJax
variable, and defines the following subsystems:MathJax.Object
(objectoriented programming model)MathJax.Callback
(callbacks, signals, and queues)MathJax.Ajax
(fileloading and stylecreation code)MathJax.HTML
(support code for creating HTML elements)MathJax.Localization
(alternative language support)MathJax.Message
(manages the menu line in the lower left)MathJax.Hub
(the core MathJax functions)
 It then creates the base
MathJax.InputJax
,MathJax.OutputJax
, andMathJax.ElementJax
objects.
 MathJax sets up the default configuration, and creates the signal objects used for the startup and hub actions.
 MathJax locates the
<script>
tag that loaded theMathJax.js
file, and sets theMathJax.Hub.config.root
value to reflect the location of the MathJax root directory.
 MathJax determines the browser being used and its version. It sets
up the
MathJax.Hub.Browser
object, which includes the browser name and version, plusisMac
,isPC
,isMSIE
, and so on.
 MathJax executes the
AuthorInit()
function specified from inlineMathJax = {...}
configuration.
 MathJax sets up the
MathJax.Hub.queue
command queue, and populates it with the commands MathJax runs at startup. This includes creating theMathJax.Hub.Startup.onload
onload handler that is used to synchronize MathJax’s action with the loading of the page.
Once the MathJax.Hub.queue
is created, the following actions are
pushed into the queue:
 Post the
Begin
startup signal
 Perform the configuration actions:
 Post the
Begin Config
startup signal  Load any configuration files specified via
config=
as a script parameter  Perform author configuration from inline
MathJax = {...}
 Execute the content of the
<script>
that loaded MathJax, if it is not empty  Wait for the
delayStartupUntil
condition to be met, if one was specified  Execute any
text/xmathjaxconfig
script blocks  load the files listed in the
MathJax.Hub.config.config
array  Post the
End Config
startup signal
 Post the
 Load the cookie values:
 Post the
Begin Cookie
startup signal  Load the menu cookie values
 Use the cookie to set the renderer, if it is set
 Post the
End Cookie
startup signal
 Post the
 Define the MathJax styles:
 Post the
Begin Styles
startup signal  Load the stylesheet files from the
MathJax.Hub.config.stylesheets
array  Define the stylesheet described in
MathJax.Hub.config.styles
 Post the
End Styles
startup signal
 Post the
 Initialize the Message system (the grey information box in the lower left)
 Load the jax configuration files:
 Post the
Begin Jax
startup signal  Load the jax config files from the
MathJax.Hub.config.jax
array The jax will register themselves when they are loaded
 Post the
End Jax
startup signal
 Post the
 Load the extension files:
 Post the
Begin Extensions
startup signal  Load the files from the
MathJax.Hub.config.extensions
array Most extensions will post a
[name] Ready
orExtension [name] Ready
startup message when they are loaded (where[name]
is the name of the extension)
 Most extensions will post a
 Post the
End Extensions
startup signal
 Post the
 Set the MathJax menu’s renderer value based on the jax that have been loaded
 Wait for the onload handler to fire (in MathJax v2.0 this can
occur on the
DOMContentLoaded
event rather than the page’sonload
event, so processing of mathematics can start earlier)
 Set
MathJax.isReady
totrue
 Perform the typesetting pass (preprocessors and processors)
 Post the
Begin Typeset
startup signal  Post the
Begin PreProcess
hub signal  Run the registered preprocessors
 Post the
End PreProcess
hub signal  Clear the hub signal history
 Post the
Begin Process
hub signal  Process the math script elements on the page
 There are a number of Hub signals generated during math
processing, including a signal that a
Math
action is starting (with a parameter indicating what action that is),Begin
andEnd Math Input
messages, andBegin
andEnd Math Output
signals.  Each new math element generates a
New Math
hub signal with the math element’s ID
 There are a number of Hub signals generated during math
processing, including a signal that a
 Post the
End Process
hub signal  Post the
End Typeset
startup signal
 Post the
 Jump to the location specified in the URL’s hash reference, if any.
 Initiate timers to load the zoom and menu code, if it hasn’t already been loading in the configuration (so it will be ready when the user needs it).
 Post the
End
startup signal
The loading of the jax and extensions in steps 6 and 7 are now done in parallel, rather than sequentially. That is, all the jax and extensions are requested simultaneously, so they load concurrently. That means they can load in any order, and that the begin and end signals for the jax and extensions can be intermixed. (In general, you will get Begin Jax followed by Begin Extensions, but the order of End Jax and End Extensions will depend on the files being loaded.) Both 6 and 7 must complete, however, before 8 will be performed.
See the test/samplesignals.html file to see the signals in action.
Synchronizing your code with MathJax¶
MathJax performs much of its activity asynchronously, meaning that the calls that you make to initiate these actions will return before the actions are completed, and your code will continue to run even though the actions have not been finished (and may not even be started yet). Actions such as loading files, loading webbased fonts, and creating stylesheets all happen asynchronously within the browser, and since JavaScript has no method of halting a program while waiting for an action to complete, synchronizing your code with these types of actions is made much more difficult. MathJax uses three mechanisms to overcome this language shortcoming: callbacks, queues, and signals.
Callbacks are functions that are called when an action is completed, so that your code can continue where it left off when the action was initiated. Rather than have a single routine that initiates an action, waits for it to complete, and then goes on, you break the function into two parts: a first part that sets up and initiates the action, and a second that runs after the action is finished. Callbacks are similar to event handlers that you attach to DOM elements, and are called when a certain action occurs. See the Callback Object reference page for details of how to specify a callback.
Queues are MathJax’s means of synchronizing actions that must be performed sequentially, even when they involve asynchronous events like loading files or dynamically creating stylesheets. The actions that you put in the queue are Callback objects that will be performed in sequence, with MathJax handling the linking of one action to the next. MathJax maintains a master queue that you can use to synchronize with MathJax, but you can also create your own private queues for actions that need to be synchronized with each other, but not to MathJax as a whole. See the Queue Object reference page for more details.
Signals are another means of synchronizing your own code with
MathJax. Many of the important actions that MathJax takes (like
typesetting new math on the page, or loading an external component)
are “announced” by posting a message to a special object called a
Signal. Your code can register an interest in receiving one or more
of these signals by providing a callback to be called when the signal
is posted. When the signal arrives, MathJax will call your code.
This works somewhat like an event handler, except that many different
types of events can go through the same signal, and the signals have a
“memory”, meaning that if you register an interest in a particular
type of signal and that signal has already occurred, you will be told
about the past occurrences as well as any future ones. See the
Signal Object reference page for more details.
See also the test/samplesignals.html
file in the MathJax test
directory for a working example of using
signals.
Each of these is explained in more detail in the links below:
Using Callbacks¶
A “callback” is a function that MathJax calls when it completes an action that may occur asynchronously (like loading a file). Many of MathJax’s functions operate asynchronously, and MathJax uses callbacks to allow you to synchronize your code with the action of those functions. The MathJax.Callback structure manages these callbacks. Callbacks can include not only a function to call, but also data to be passed to the function, and an object to act as the JavaScript this value in the resulting call (i.e., the object on which the callback is to execute).
Callbacks can be collected into Queues where the callbacks will be processed in order, with later callbacks waiting until previous ones have completed before they are called. They are also used with Signals as the means of receiving information about the signals as they occur.
A number of methods in MathJax.Hub and MathJax.Ajax accept callback specifications as arguments and return callback structures. These routines always will return a callback even when none was specified in the arguments, and in that case, the callback is a “do nothing” callback. The reason for this is so that the resulting callback can be used in a MathJax.Callback.Queue for synchronization purposes, so that the actions following it in the queue will not be performed until after the callback has been fired.
For example, the MathJax.Ajax.Require()
method can be used to
load external files, and it returns a callback that is called when the
file has been loaded and executed. If you want to load several files
and wait for them all to be loaded before performing some action, you
can create a Queue into which you push the results of the
MathJax.Ajax.Require()
calls, and then push a callback for the
action. The final action will not be performed until all the
fileload callbacks (which precede it in the queue) have been called;
i.e., the action will not occur until all the files are loaded.
Specifying a Callback¶
Callbacks can be specified in a number of different ways, depending on the functionality that is required of the callback. The easiest case is to simply provide a function to be called, but it is also possible to include data to pass to the function when it is called, and to specify the object that will be used as this when the function is called.
For example, the MathJax.Ajax.Require()
method can accept a
callback as its second argument (it will be called when the file given
as the first argument is loaded and executed). So you can call
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/config/myConfig.js",function () {
alert("My configuration file is loaded");
});
and an alert will appear when the file is loaded. An example of passing arguments to the callback function includes the following:
function loadHook (x) {alert("loadHook: "+x)}
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/config/myConfig.js",[loadHook,"myConfig"]);
Here, the loadHook()
function accepts one argument and generates
an alert that includes the value passed to it. The callback in the
MathJax.Ajax.Require()
call is [loadHook,"myConfig"]
,
which means that (the equivalent of) loadHook("myConfig")
will be
performed when the file is loaded. The result should be an alert with
the text loadHook: myConfig.
The callback for the MathJax.Ajax.Require()
method actually
gets called with a status value, in addition to any parameters already
included in the callback specification, that indicates whether the
file loaded successfully, or failed for some reason (perhaps the file
couldn’t be found, or it failed to compile and run). So you could use
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/config/myConfig.js",function (status) {
if (status === MathJax.Ajax.STATUS.OK) {
alert("My configuration file is loaded");
} else {
alert("My configuration file failed to load!");
}
});
to check if the file loaded properly. With additional parameters, the example might be
function loadHook (x,status) {alert("loadHook: "+x+" has status "+status)}
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/config/myConfig.js",[loadHook,"myConfig"]);
Note that the parameters given in the callback specification are used first, and then additional parameters from the call to the callback come afterward.
Callbacks to Object Methods¶
When you use a method of a JavaScript object, a special variable called this is defined that refers to the object whose method is being called. It allows you to access other methods or properties of the object without knowing explicitly where the object is stored.
For example,
var aPerson = {
firstname: "John",
lastname: "Smith",
showName: function () {alert(this.firstname+" "+this.lastname)}
};
creates an object that contains three items, a firstname, and
lastname, and a method that shows the person’s full name in an
alert. So aPerson.showName()
would cause an alert with the text
John Smith
to appear. Note, however that this only works if the
method is called as aPerson.showName()
; if instead you did
var f = aPerson.showName; // assign f the function from aPerson
f(); // and call the function
the association of the function with the data in aPerson
is lost,
and the alert will probably show undefined undefined
. (In this
case, f
will be called with this
set to the window
variable, and so this.firstname
and this.lastname
will refer
to undefined values.)
Because of this, it is difficult to use an object’s method as a callback if you refer to it as a function directly. For example,
var aFile = {
name: "[MathJax]/config/myConfig.js",
onload: function (status) {
alert(this.name+" is loaded with status "+status);
}
};
MathJax.Ajax.Require(aFile.name,aFile.onload);
would produce an alert indicating that “undefined” was loaded with a
particular status. That is because aFile.onload
is a reference to
the onload method, which is just a function, and the association
with the aFile object is lost. One could do
MathJax.Ajax.Require(aFile.name,function (status) {aFile.onload(status)});
but that seems needlessly verbose, and it produces a closure when one is not really needed. Instead, MathJax provides an alternative specification for a callback that allows you to specify both the method and the object it comes from:
MathJax.Ajax.Require(aFile.name,["onload",aFile]);
This requests that the callback should call aFile.onload
as the
function, which will maintain the connection between aFile
and its
method, thus preserving the correct value for this within the method.
As in the previous cases, you can pass parameters to the method as well by including them in the array that specifies the callback:
MathJax.Ajax.Require("filename",["method",object,arg1,arg2,...]);
This approach is useful when you are pushing a callback for one of MathJax’s Hub routines into the MathJax processing queue. For example,
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"MathDiv"]);
pushes the equivalent of MathJax.Hub.Typeset("MathDiv")
into the
processing queue.
See the Callback Object reference pages for more information about the valid methods of specifying a callback.
Creating a Callback Explicitly¶
When you call a method that accepts a callback, you usually pass it a callback specification (like in the examples above), which describes a callback (the method will create the actual Callback object, and return that to you as its return value). You don’t usually create Callback objects directly yourself.
There are times, however, when you may wish to create a callback
object for use with functions that don’t create callbacks for you.
For example, the setTimeout()
function can take a function as its
argument, and you may want that function to be a method of an object,
and would run into the problem described in the previous section if
you simply passed the object’s method to setTimeout()
. Or you
might want to pass an argument to the function called by
setTimeout()
. (Altough the setTimeout()
function can accept
additional arguements that are supposed to be passed on to the code
when it is called, some versions of Internet Explorer do not implement
that feature, so you can’t rely on it.) You can use a Callback
object to do this, and the MathJax.Callback()
method will
create one for you. For example,
function f(x) {alert("x = "+x)}
setTimeout(MathJax.Callback([f,"Hello World!"]),500);
would create a callback that calls f("Hello World!")
, and
schedules it to be called in half a second.
Using Queues¶
The callback queue is one of MathJax’s main tools for synchronizing its actions, both internally, and with external programs, like javascript code that you may write as part of dynamic web pages. Because many actions in MathJax (like loading files) operate asynchronously, MathJax needs a way to coordinate those actions so that they occur in the right order. The MathJax.Callback.Queue object provides that mechanism.
A callback queue is a list of commands that will be performed one at a time, in order. If the return value of one of the commands is a Callback object, processing is suspended until that callback is called, and then processing of the commands is resumed. In this way, if a command starts an asynchronous operation like loading a file, it can return the callback for that fileload operation and the queue will wait until the file has loaded before continuing. Thus a queue can be used to guarantee that commands don’t get performed until other ones are known to be finished, even if those commands usually operate asynchronously.
Constructing Queues¶
A queue is created via the MathJax.Callback.Queue()
command,
which returns a MathJax.Callback.Queue object. The queue
itself consists of a series of commands given as callback
specifications (see Using Callbacks for
details on callbacks), which allow you to provide functions (together
with their arguments) to be executed. You can provide the collection
of callback specifications when the queue is created by passing them
as arguments to MathJax.Callback.Queue()
, or you can create an
empty queue to which commands are added later. Once a
MathJax.Callback.Queue object is created, you can push
additional callbacks on the end of the queue; if the queue is empty,
the command will be performed immediately, while if the queue is
waiting for another command to complete, the new command will be
queued for later processing.
For example,
function f(x) {alert(x)}
var queue = MathJax.Callback.Queue([f, 15], [f, 10], [f, 5]);
queue.Push([f, 0]);
would create a queue containing three commands, each calling the
function f
with a different input, that are performed in order. A
fourth command is then added to the queue, to be performed after the
other three. In this case, the result will be four alerts, the first
with the number 15, the second with 10, the third with 5 and the
fourth with 0. Of course f
is not a function that operates
asynchronously, so it would have been easier to just call f
four
times directly. The power of the queue comes from calling commands
that could operate asynchronously. For example:
function f(x) {alert(x)}
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
[f, 1],
["Require", MathJax.Ajax, "[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js"],
[f, 2]
);
Here, the command MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js")
is queued between two calls to f
. The first call to f(1)
will
be made immediately, then the MathJax.Ajax.Require()
statement
will be performed. Since the Require
method loads a file, it
operates asynchronously, and its return value is a MathJax.Callback
object that will be called when the file is loaded. The call to
f(2)
will not be made until that callback is performed,
effectively synchronizing the second call to f
with the completion
of the file loading. This is equivalent to
f(1);
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js", [f, 2]);
since the Require()
command allows you to specify a (single)
callback to be performed on the completion of the file load. Note,
however, that the queue could be used to synchronize several file
loads along with multiple function calls, so is more flexible.
For example,
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
["Require", MathJax.Ajax, "[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js"],
[f, 1],
["Require", MathJax.Ajax, "[MathJax]/config/local/AMSmathAdditions.js"],
[f, 2]
);
would load the AMSmath extension, then call f(1)
then load the
local AMSmath modifications, and then call f(2)
, with each action
waiting for the previous one to complete before being performed
itself.
Callbacks versus Callback Specifications¶
If one of the callback specifications is an actual callback object itself, then the queue will wait for that action to be performed before proceeding. For example,
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
[f, 1],
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js"),
[f, 2],
);
starts the loading of the AMSmath extension before the queue is
created, and then creates the queue containing the call to f
, the
callback for the file load, and the second call to f
. The queue
performs f(1)
, waits for the file load callback to be called, and
then calls f(2)
. The difference between this and the second
example above is that, in this example the file load is started before
the queue is even created, so the file is potentially loaded and
executed before the call to f(1)
, while in the example above, the
file load is guaranteed not to begin until after f(1)
is executed.
As a further example, consider
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js"),
[f, 1],
MathJax.Ajax.Require("[MathJax]/config/local/AMSmathAdditions.js"),
[f, 2]
);
in comparison to the example above that uses ["Require",
MathJax.Ajax, "[MathJax]/extensions/AMSmath.js"]
and ["Require",
MathJax.Ajax, "[MathJax]/config/local/AMSmathAdditions.js"]
instead. In that
example, AMSmath.js
is loaded, then f(1)
is called, then the
local additions are loaded, then f(2)
is called.
Here, however, both file loads are started before the queue is
created, and are operating in parallel (rather than sequentially as in
the earlier example). It is possible for the loading of the local
additions to complete before the AMSmath extension is loaded in this
case, which was guaranteed not to happen in the other example.
Note, however, that f(1)
is guaranteed not to be performed until
after the AMSmath extensions load, and f(2)
will not occur until
after both files are loaded.
In this way, it is possible to start asynchronous loading of several files simultaneously, and wait until all of them are loaded (in whatever order) to perform some command. For instance,
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
MathJax.Ajax.Require("file1.js"),
MathJax.Ajax.Require("file2.js"),
MathJax.Ajax.Require("file3.js"),
MathJax.Ajax.Require("file4.js"),
[f, "all done"]
);
starts four files loading all at once, and waits for all four to
complete before calling f("all done")
. The order in which they
complete is immaterial, and they all are being requested
simultaneously.
The MathJax Processing Queue¶
MathJax uses a queue stored as MathJax.Hub.queue
to regulate its
own actions so that they operate in the right order even when some
of them include asynchronous operations. You can take advantage of
that queue when you make calls to MathJax methods that need to be
synchronized with the other actions taken by MathJax. It may not
always be apparent, however, which methods fall into that category.
The main source of asynchronous actions in MathJax is the loading of external files, so any action that may cause a file to be loaded may act asynchronously. Many important actions do so, including some that you might not expect; e.g., typesetting mathematics can cause files to be loaded. This is because some TeX commands, for example, are rare enough that they are not included in the core TeX input processor, but instead are defined in extensions that are loaded automatically when needed. The typesetting of an expression containing one of these TeX commands can cause the typesetting process to be suspended while the file is loaded, and then restarted when the extension has become available.
As a result, any call to MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
(or
MathJax.Hub.Process()
, or MathJax.Hub.Update()
, etc.)
could return long before the mathematics is actually typeset, and the
rest of your code may run before the mathematics is available. If you
have code that relies on the mathematics being visible on screen, you
will need to break that out into a separate operation that is
synchronized with the typesetting via the MathJax queue.
Furthermore, your own typesetting calls may need to wait for file loading to occur that is already underway, so even if you don’t need to access the mathematics after it is typeset, you may still need to queue the typeset command in order to make sure it is properly synchronized with previous typeset calls. For instance, if an earlier call started loading an extension and you start another typeset call before that extension is fully loaded, MathJax’s internal state may be in flux, and it may not be prepared to handle another typeset operation yet. This is even more important if you are using other libraries that may call MathJax, in which case your code may not be aware of the state that MathJax is in.
For these reasons, it is always best to perform typesetting operations through the MathJax queue, and the same goes for any other action that could cause files to load. A good rule of thumb is that, if a MathJax function includes a callback argument, that function may operate asynchronously; you should use the MathJax queue to perform it and any actions that rely on its results.
To place an action in the MathJax queue, use the
MathJax.Hub.Queue()
command. For example
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"MathDiv"]);
would queue the command MathJax.Hub.Typeset("MathDiv")
, causing
the contents of the DOM element with id equal to MathDiv
to be
typeset.
One of the uses of the MathJax queue is to allow you to synchronize an
action with the startup process for MathJax. If you want to have a
function performed after MathJax has become completely set up (and
performed its initial typesetting of the page), you can push it onto
the MathJax.Hub.queue
so that it won’t be performed until MathJax
finishes everything it has queued when it was loaded. For example,
<script type="text/javascript" src="/MathJax/MathJax.js"></script>
<script>
MathJax.Hub.Queue(function () {
// ... your startup commands here ...
});
</script>
Using Signals¶
Because much of MathJax operates asynchronously, it is important for
MathJax to be able to indicate to other components operating on the
page that certain actions have been taken. For example, as MathJax is
starting up, it loads external files such as its configuration files
and the various input and output jax that are used on the
page. This means that MathJax may not be ready to run until well
after the <script>
tag that loads MathJax.js
has executed. If
another component on the page needs to call MathJax to process some
mathematics, it will need to know when MathJax is ready to do that.
Thus MathJax needs a way to signal other components that it is
initialized and ready to process mathematics. Other events that might
need to be signaled include the appearance of newly processed
mathematics on the web page, the loading of a new extension, and so
on.
The mechanism provided by MathJax for handling this type of communication is the Callback Signal. The Callback Signal object provides a standardized mechanism for sending and receiving messages between MathJax and other code on the page. A signal acts like a mailbox where MathJax places messages for others to read. Those interested in seeing the messages can register an interest in receiving a given signal, and when MathJax posts a message on that signal, all the interested parties will be notified. No new posts to the signal will be allowed until everyone who is listening to the signal has had a chance to receive the first one. If a signal causes a listener to begin an asynchronous operation (such as loading a file), the listener can indicate that its reply to the signal is going to be delayed, and MathJax will wait until the asynchronous action is complete before allowing additional messages to be posted to this signal. In this way, posting a signal may itself be an asynchronous action.
The posts to a signal are cached so that if a new listener expresses
an interest in the signal, it will receive all the past posts as well
as any future ones. For example, if a component on the page needs to
know when MathJax is set up, it can express an interest in the startup
signal’s End
message. If MathJax is not yet set up, the component
will be signaled when MathJax is ready to begin, but if MathJax is
already set up, the component will receive the End
message
immediately, since that message was cached and is available to any new
listeners. In this way, signals can be used to pass messages without
worrying about the timing of when the signaler and listener are ready
to send or receive signals: a listener will receive messages even if
it starts listening after they were sent.
One way that MathJax makes use of this feature is in configuring its
various extensions. The extension may not be loaded when the user’s
configuration code runs, so the configuration code can’t modify the
extension because it isn’t there yet. Fortunately, most extensions
signal when they are loaded and initialized via an Extension [name]
Ready
message, or just [name] Ready
, so the configuration code
can implement a listener for that message, and have the listener
perform the configuration when the message arrives. But even if the
extension has already been loaded, this will still work, because the
listener will receive the ready signal even if it has already been
posted. In this way, listening for signals is a robust method of
synchronizing code components no matter when they are loaded and run.
In some cases, it may be inappropriate for a new listener to receive past messages that were sent to a signal object. There are two ways to handle this: first, a new listener can indicate that it doesn’t want to hear old messages when it attaches itself to a signal object. The sender can also indicate that past messages are not appropriate for new listeners. It does this by clearing the message history so that new listeners have no old posts to hear.
The actual message passed along by the signal can be anything, but is frequently a string constant indicating the message value. It could also be a JavaScript array containing data, or an object containing key:value pairs. All the listeners receive the data as part of the message, and can act on it in whatever ways they see fit.
Creating a Listener¶
MathJax maintains two separate predefined signal channels: the
startup signal and the processing signal (or the hub signal).
The startup signal is where the messages about different components
starting up and becoming ready appear. The processing signal is where
the messages are sent about processing mathematics, like the New
Math
messages for when newly typeset mathematics appears on the
page. The latter is cleared when a new processing pass is started (so
messages from past processing runs are not kept).
The easiest way to create a listener is to use either
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook()
or
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook()
. The first sets a listener
on the startup signal, and the latter on the hub processing signal.
You specify the message you want to listen for, and a callback to be
called when it arrives. For example
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready ",function () {
alert("The TeX input jax is loaded and ready!");
});
See the MathJax Startup Sequence page for details of the messages sent during startup. See also the test/samplesignals.html file (and its source) for examples of using signals. This example lists all the signals that occur while MathJax is processing that page, so it gives useful information about the details of the signals produced by various components.
In this example, the listener starts loading an extra configuration file (from the same directory as the web page). Since it returns the callback from that request, the signal processing will wait until that file is completely loaded before it continues; that is, the configuration process is suspended until the extra configuration file has loaded.
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("Begin Config",
function () {return MathJax.Ajax.Require("myConfig.js")}
);
Here is an example that produces an alert each time new mathematics
is typeset on the page. The message includes the DOM id of the
element on the page that contains the newly typeset mathematics as its
second element, so this listener locates the <script>
tag
for the math, and displays the original source mathematics for it.
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook("New Math", function (message) {
var script = MathJax.Hub.getJaxFor(message[1]).SourceElement();
alert(message.join(" ")+": '"+script.text+"'");
})
Listening for All Messages¶
If you want to process every message that passes through a signal
channel, you can do that by registering an interest in the signal
rather than registering a message hook. You do this by calling the
signal’s Interest()
method, as in the following example.
MathJax.Hub.Startup.signal.Interest(
function (message) {alert("Startup: "+message)}
);
MathJax.Hub.signal.Interest(
function (message) {alert("Hub: "+message)}
);
This will cause an alert for every signal that MathJax produces. You probably don’t want to try this out, since it will produce a lot of them; instead, use the test/samplesignals.html file, which displays them in the web page.
See the Signal Object reference page for details on the structure and methods of the signal object.
Loading MathJax Dynamically¶
MathJax is designed to be included via a <script>
tag in the
<head>
section of your HTML document, and it does rely on being
part of the original document in that it uses an onload
or
DOMContentLoaded
event handler to synchronize its actions with the
loading of the page. If you wish to insert MathJax into a document
after it has been loaded, that will normally occur after the page’s
onload
handler has fired, and prior to version 2.0, MathJax had to
be told not to wait for the page onload
event by calling
MathJax.Hub.Startup.onload()
by hand. That is no longer
necessary, as MathJax v2.0 detects whether the page is already
available and when it is, it processes it immediately rather than
waiting for an event that has already happened.
Here is an example of how to load and configure MathJax dynamically:
(function () {
var script = document.createElement("script");
script.type = "text/javascript";
script.src = "https://example.com/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTML";
document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script);
})();
If you need to provide inline configuration, you can do that using a MathJax’s configuration script:
(function () {
var head = document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0], script;
script = document.createElement("script");
script.type = "text/xmathjaxconfig";
script[(window.opera ? "innerHTML" : "text")] =
"MathJax.Hub.Config({\n" +
" tex2jax: { inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\\\(','\\\\)']] }\n" +
"});";
head.appendChild(script);
script = document.createElement("script");
script.type = "text/javascript";
script.src = "https://example.com/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTML";
head.appendChild(script);
})();
You can adjust the configuration to your needs, but be careful to get
the commas right, as Internet Explorer 6 and 7 will not tolerate an
extra comma before a closing brace. The window.opera
test is
because some versions of Opera don’t handle setting script.text
properly, while some versions of Internet Explorer don’t handle
setting script.innerHTML
.
Note that the only reliable way to configure MathJax is to use an
inline configuration block of the type discussed above. You should
not call MathJax.Hub.Config()
directly in your code, as it will
not run at the correct time — it will either run too soon, in which case
MathJax
may not be defined and the function will throw an error, or it
will run too late, after MathJax has already finished its configuration
process, so your changes will not have the desired effect.
MathJax and GreaseMonkey¶
You can use techniques like the ones discussed above to good effect in GreaseMonkey scripts. There are GreaseMonkey workalikes for all the major browsers:
 Firefox: GreaseMonkey
 Safari: TamperMonkey
 Microsoft Edge: TamperMonkey
 Internet Explorer: IEPro7
 Chrome: TamperMonkey
 Opera Next: TamperMonkey
Note, however, that most browsers don’t allow you to insert a script
that loads a file://
URL into a page that comes from the web (for
security reasons). That means that you can’t have your GreaseMonkey
script load a local copy of MathJax, so you have to refer to a
serverbased copy. One of the CDNs that serve MathJax works nicely for this.
Here is a script that runs MathJax in any document that contains MathML (whether it includes MathJax or not). That allows browsers that don’t have native MathML support to view any web pages with MathML, even if they say it only works in Firefox and IE+MathPlayer.
// ==UserScript==
// @name MathJax MathML
// @namespace http://www.mathjax.org/
// @description Insert MathJax into pages containing MathML
// @include *
// ==/UserScript==
if ((window.unsafeWindow == null ? window : unsafeWindow).MathJax == null) {
if ((document.getElementsByTagName("math").length > 0) 
(document.getElementsByTagNameNS == null ? false :
(document.getElementsByTagNameNS("http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML","math").length > 0))) {
var script = document.createElement("script");
script.type = "text/javascript";
script.src = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/latest.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTMLfull";
document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script);
}
}
Source: mathjax_mathml.user.js
Here is a script that runs MathJax in Wikipedia pages after first converting the math images to their original TeX code.
// ==UserScript==
// @name MathJax in Wikipedia
// @namespace http://www.mathjax.org/
// @description Insert MathJax into Wikipedia pages
// @include http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/*
// ==/UserScript==
if ((window.unsafeWindow == null ? window : unsafeWindow).MathJax == null) {
//
// Replace the images with MathJax scripts of type math/tex
//
var images = document.getElementsByTagName('img'), count = 0;
for (var i = images.length  1; i >= 0; i) {
var img = images[i];
if (img.className === "tex") {
var script = document.createElement("script"); script.type = "math/tex";
if (window.opera) {script.innerHTML = img.alt} else {script.text = img.alt}
img.parentNode.replaceChild(script,img); count++;
}
}
if (count) {
//
// Load MathJax and have it process the page
//
var script = document.createElement("script");
script.type = "text/javascript";
script.src = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/latest.js?config=TeXAMSMML_CHTMLfull";
document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script);
}
}
Source: mathjax_wikipedia.user.js
Modifying Math on the Page¶
If you are writing a dynamic web page where content containing
mathematics may appear after MathJax has already typeset the rest of
the page, then you will need to tell MathJax to look for mathematics
in the page again when that new content is produced. To do that, you
need to use the MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
method. This will cause
the preprocessors (if any were loaded) to run over the page again, and
then MathJax will look for unprocessed mathematics on the page and
typeset it, leaving unchanged any math that has already been typeset.
You should not simply call this method directly, however. Because
MathJax operates asynchonously (see Synchronizing with MathJax for details), you need to be sure that
your call to MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
is synchronized with the
other actions that MathJax is taking. For example, it may already be
typesetting portions of the page, or it may be waiting for an output
jax to load, etc., and so you need to queue the typeset action to be
performed after MathJax has finished whatever else it may be doing.
That may be immediately, but it may not, and there is no way to tell.
To queue the typeset action, use the command
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub]);
This will cause MathJax to typeset the page when it is next able to do so. It guarantees that the typesetting will synchronize properly with the loading of jax, extensions, fonts, stylesheets, and other asynchronous activity, and is the only truly safe way to ask MathJax to process additional material.
The MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
command also accepts a parameter
that is a DOM element whose content is to be typeset. That could be
a paragraph, or a <div>
element, or even a MathJax math
<script>
tag. It could also be the DOM id of such an object, in
which case, MathJax will look up the DOM element for you. So
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"MathExample"]);
would typeset the mathematics contained in the element whose id is
MathExample
. This is equivalent to
var math = document.getElementById("MathExample");
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,math]);
If no element or element id is provided, the whole document is typeset.
Note that the MathJax.Hub.Queue()
method will return
immediately, regardless of whether the typesetting has taken place or
not, so you can not assume that the mathematics is visible after you
make this call. That means that things like the size of the container
for the mathematics may not yet reflect the size of the typeset
mathematics. If you need to perform actions that depend on the
mathematics being typeset, you should push those actions onto the
MathJax.Hub.queue
as well.
This can be quite subtle, so you have to think carefully about the structure of your code that works with the typeset mathematics. Also, the things you push onto the queue should be Callback objects that perform the actions you want when they are called, not the results of calling the functions that do what you want.
Manipulating Individual Math Elements¶
If you are not changing a complete DOM structure, but simply want to
update the contents of a single mathematical equation, you do not need
to use innerHTML
and MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
to preprocess
and process an element’s new content. Instead, you can ask MathJax to
find the element jax for the math element on the page, and use its
methods to modify and update the mathematics that it displays.
For example, suppose you have the following HTML in your document
<div id="MathDiv">
The answer you provided is: \({}\).
</div>
and MathJax has already preprocessed and typeset the mathematics
within the div. A student has typed something elsewhere on the page,
and you want to typeset their answer in the location of the
mathematics that is already there. You could replace the entire
contents of the MathDiv element and call
MathJax.Hub.Typeset()
as described above, but there is a more
efficient approach, which is to ask MathJax for the element jax for
the mathematics, and call its method for replacing the formula shown
by that element. For example:
var math = MathJax.Hub.getAllJax("MathDiv")[0];
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Text",math,"x+1"]);
This looks up the list of math elements in the MathDiv element
(there is only one) and takes the first one (element 0) and stores it
in math
. This is an element jax object (see the Element
Jax specification for details), which has a
Text()
method that can be used to set the input text of the
math element, and retypeset it.
Again, since the typesetting should be synchronized with other actions
of MathJax, the call should be pushed onto the MathJax processing
queue using MathJax.Hub.Queue()
, as shown above, rather than
called directly. The example above performs the equivalent of
math.Text("x+1")
as soon as MathJax is able to do so. Any
additional actions that rely on the expression x+1
actually
showing on screen should also be pushed onto the queue so that they
will not occur before the math is typeset.
The actions you can perform on an element jax include:
Text(newmath)
to set the math text of the element to
newmath
and typeset.
Rerender()
to remove the output and reproduce it again (for example, if CSS has changed that would alter the spacing of the mathematics). Note that the internal representation isn’t regenerated; only the output is.
Reprocess()
to remove the output and then retranslate the input into the internal MathML and rerender the output.
Remove()
to remove the output for this math element (but not the original
<script>
tag).
needsUpdate()
to find out if the mathematics has changed so that its output needs to be updated.
SourceElement()
to obtain a reference to the original
<script>
object that is associated with this element jax.
Note that once you have located an element jax, you can keep using it and don’t have to look it up again. So for the example above, if the student is going to be able to type several different answers that you will want to typeset, you can look up the element jax once at the beginning after MathJax has processed the page the first time, and then use that result each time you adjust the mathematics to be displayed.
To get the element jax the first time, you need to be sure that you ask MathJax for it after MathJax has processed the page the first time. This is another situation where you want to use the MathJax queue. If your startup code performs the commands
var studentDisplay = null;
MathJax.Hub.Queue(function () {
studentDisplay = MathJax.Hub.getAllJax("MathDiv")[0];
});
then you can use
MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Text",studentDisplay,studentAnswer])
to change the student’s answer to be the typeset version of whatever
is in the studentAnswer
variable.
Here is a complete example that illustrates this approach. Note,
however, that Internet Explorer does not fire the onchange
event
when you press RETURN, so this example does not work as expected in
IE. A more fullfeatured version that addresses this problem is
available in test/sampledynamic.html.
<html>
<head>
<title>MathJax Dynamic Math Test Page</title>
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [["$","$"],["\\(","\\)"]]
}
});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/latest.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTMLfull">
</script>
</head>
<body>
<script>
//
// Use a closure to hide the local variables from the
// global namespace
//
(function () {
var QUEUE = MathJax.Hub.queue; // shorthand for the queue
var math = null; // the element jax for the math output.
//
// Get the element jax when MathJax has produced it.
//
QUEUE.Push(function () {
math = MathJax.Hub.getAllJax("MathOutput")[0];
});
//
// The onchange event handler that typesets the
// math entered by the user
//
window.UpdateMath = function (TeX) {
QUEUE.Push(["Text",math,"\\displaystyle{"+TeX+"}"]);
}
})();
</script>
Type some TeX code:
<input id="MathInput" size="50" onchange="UpdateMath(this.value)" />
<p>
<div id="MathOutput">
You typed: ${}$
</div>
</body>
</html>
There are a number of additional example pages at test/examples.html that illustrate how to call MathJax dynamically or perform other actions with MathJax.
Reset Automatic Equation Numbering¶
The TeX input allows you to automatically number equations. When modifying a page, this can lead to problems as numbered equations may be removed and added; most commonly, duplicate labels (and thus id
’s in the DOM) lead to issues.
You can reset equation numbering using the TeX Input’s resetEquationNumbers
but you will need to reprocess the page to update the labels afterwards, e.g.,
MathJax.Hub.Queue(
["resetEquationNumbers",MathJax.InputJax.TeX],
["PreProcess",MathJax.Hub],
["Reprocess",MathJax.Hub]
);
Obtaining the MathML for an Expression¶
The toMathML
extension generates a string containing the MathML
stored in MathJax’s internal format. It is used in the MathJax Menu to
generate MathML output for copyandpaste under Show Math as > MathML
Code
.
The toMathML
extension generally works asynchronously because it
potentially has to load additional files, in particular if the
extension is used before MathJax has produced output rendering.
To use the extension, add "toMathML.js"
to the extensions array of your configuration. For example,
MathJax.Hub.Config({
extensions: ["toMathML.js"]
});
The extension can be used by developers to access the MathML
representation of an equation (e.g., to be stored for later use). Here
is an example of how to make use of the toMathML.js
.
function getMathML(jax,callback) {
var mml;
try {
//
// Try to produce the MathML (if an asynchronous
// action occurs, a reset error is thrown)
// Otherwise we got the MathML and call the
// user's callback passing the MathML.
//
mml = jax.root.toMathML("");
} catch(err) {
if (!err.restart) {throw err} // an actual error
//
// For a delay due to file loading
// call this routine again after waiting for the
// the asynchronous action to finish.
//
return MathJax.Callback.After([getMathML,jax,callback],err.restart);
}
//
// Pass the MathML to the user's callback
MathJax.Callback(callback)(mml);
}
This will give you a function that you can pass an Element Jax and a callback function to. The callback will be called with the MathML from the element.
Here is a complete example:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>MathJax TeX to MathML Page</title>
<script>
function toMathML(jax,callback) {
var mml;
try {
mml = jax.root.toMathML("");
} catch(err) {
if (!err.restart) {throw err} // an actual error
return MathJax.Callback.After([toMathML,jax,callback],err.restart);
}
MathJax.Callback(callback)(mml);
}
</script>
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
tex2jax: {inlineMath: [["$","$"],["\\\\(","\\\\)"]]}
});
MathJax.Hub.Queue(
function () {
var jax = MathJax.Hub.getAllJax();
for (var i = 0; i < jax.length; i++) {
toMathML(jax[i],function (mml) {
alert(jax[i].originalText + "\n\n=>\n\n"+ mml);
});
}
}
);
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://example.com/MathJax.js?config=TeXAMS_CHTMLfull"></script>
</head>
<body>
<p>
When $a \ne 0$, there are two solutions to \(ax^2 + bx + c = 0\) and they are
$$x = {b \pm \sqrt{b^24ac} \over 2a}.$$
</p>
</body>
</html>
This example loops through the math elements on the page and displays the original TeX and the resulting MathML.
Note that using the callbacks is the only safe way to do this, as the
jax.root.toMathML()
call may signal that it needs to load a file
by throwing the reset error. If you do not take this into account,
your code may work most of the time, but will cause errors in isolated
circumstances.
Tutorial: Extension writing¶
MathJax is designed in a way that makes it easy to write extensions. Examples can be found in the MathJax third party extensions repository; see also Thirdparty Extensions.
In this tutorial, we are going to see how to write your own MathJax extension. No specific prerequisites are assumed, except that you already have a local installation and of course some familiarity with how to use MathJax.
The Big Picture¶
We suppose that you have a copy of MathJax in a MathJax/
directory
and that the URL http://localhost/MathJax/
points to that directory.
We also assume that you have a local Web server running at
http://localhost/
; this is not mandatory but will avoid issues with
the crossorigin security policy.
First, note that the source code of MathJax is “packed” so that the
JavaScript files are smaller and take less time to download. These files
are not easy to read and edit, so for development purposes we will work
with the MathJax/unpacked/
directory. Hence you should load the
unpacked MathJax.js
to run MathJax on your pages. For example if you
write a file like
MathJax/unpacked/test0.html
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
<title>testcase</title>
<meta charset="utf8">
<script type="text/javascript"
src="http://localhost/MathJax/unpacked/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
</script>
</head>
<body>
<p>TeX: \(\frac a b\)</p>
<p>MathML: <math><msqrt><mi>x</mi></msqrt></math></p>
<p>AsciiMath: `a^2 + b^2 = c^2`</p>
</body>
</html>
then the page http://localhost/MathJax/unpacked/test0.html
should
contain formatted equations corresponding to the TeX, MathML and
AsciiMath sources.
MathJax.js
is the main file, which initializes MathJax and loads
all its components. The most important ones are represented in the
diagram below. The input modes (in blue) are located in
unpacked/jax/input/
and transform the corresponding given input
text into MathJax’s internal strutures (in red) located in
unpacked/jax/element
(only one format at the moment, essentially
“MathML”). Then this internal structure is rendered by the output
modes (in green) located in unpacked/jax/output
. The MathJax
extensions are located in unpacked/extensions/
and can modify or
extend the MathJax components.
One feature of MathJax is that other Javascript files are loaded only when they are necessary. Extensions generally use other components so you must be sure that they are already loaded before running the extension. Similarly, the extension may need to indicate when it is ready so that other components can use it. Synchronizing your code with MathJax is explained in the MathJax documentation but we will review the rules when needed.
A Simple measureTime Extension¶
In this section, we are willing to write a small extension that indicates at the bottom of the page how much time MathJax has taken to typeset the page. First we create the following Javascript file:
// unpacked/extensions/measureTime.js
MathJax.HTML.addElement(document.body, "div", {style: {color: "red"}}, ["Hello World!"]);
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/measureTime.js");
The first line is just using the convenient
MathJax.HTML to
create a <div style="color: red;">Hello World!</div>
element. The
second line will tell MathJax that measureTime.js
has been
successfully loaded. Again, we refer to Synchronizing your code with
MathJax for
details. Now modify test0.html and insert a text/xmathjaxconfig
script just before the one loading MathJax. Use that to add
measureTime.js
to the list of extensions to load:
<! MathJax/test/test1.html >
...
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.config.extensions.push("measureTime.js");
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="http://localhost/MathJax/unpacked/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
...
The page http://localhost/MathJax/unpacked/test1.html
should now
render the same as test0.html
, except that a red “Hello World!”
message is appended at the end of the page!
Our goal is now to replace that message by something like “Typeset by
MathJax in 2 second(s)”. A quick look at the MathJax Startup
Sequence shows that the
extensions are loaded before the typesetting pass. Also, the typesetting
starts with a “Begin Typeset” signal and ends by a “End Typeset” signal.
The startup sequence ends by a final “End” signal. In order to add
listeners for these signals are sent, we use
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook
.
Writing the extension is now straighforward. We save the data specific
to the measureTime extension in a MathJax.Extension.measureTime
object. When we listen the start and end typeset signals we set the
corresponding startTime
and endTime
members to the current time.
Finally when we listen the final End signal, we append the desired div
(note that the previous version appended it immediately):
// unpacked/extensions/measureTime.js
MathJax.Extension.measureTime = {};
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("Begin Typeset", function () {
MathJax.Extension.measureTime.startTime = (new Date()).getTime();
});
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("End Typeset", function () {
MathJax.Extension.measureTime.endTime = (new Date()).getTime();
});
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("End", function () {
var delta = (MathJax.Extension.measureTime.endTime  MathJax.Extension.measureTime.startTime) / 1000.;
MathJax.HTML.addElement(document.body, "div", null,
["Typeset by MathJax in " + delta + " second(s)"]);
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/measureTime.js");
Now load test1.html
again (clearing the browser cache if necessary)
and verify if you see the desired “Typeset by MathJax in … seconds”
message.
Note that this was a basic extension to demonstrate the extension mechanism but it obviously has some limitations; e.g. only the typeset time is measured (not the whole MathJax execution time), the message is not updated when you switch the rendering mode via the menu, the message is not localizable, etc.
Extension to define TeX macros¶
TeX already has a macro mechanism to define new commands from those already available. This mechanism exists in MathJax, too, and one can rely on it to create a MathJax extension that defines a collection of TeX macros. Consider the following example:
//unpacked/extensions/TeX/Taylor.js
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready", function () {
MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.Add({
macros: {
expexpansion: ["Macro", "\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty} \\frac{x^n}{n!}"],
taylor: ["Macro","\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty} \\frac{{#1}^{(n)} \\left({#2}\\right)}{n!} {\\left( {#3}  {#2} \\right)}^n", 3],
taylorlog: ["Macro","\\sum_{n=1}^{+\\infty} {(1)}^{n+1} \\frac{#1^n}{n}", 1],
taylorsin: ["Macro","\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty} \\frac{{(1)}^n}{(2n+1)!} {#1}^{2n+1}", 1]
}
});
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/TeX/Taylor.js");
The structure is similar to the measureTime extension: we wait until the TeX input is ready by listening the appropriate signal. Then we extend the set of TeX macros with some definitions. For example
expexpansion: ["Macro", "\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty} \\frac{x^n}{n!}"]
will define a TeX command for the exponential series. Note these definitions are given in Javascript strings, so you need to escape some special characters: for example double backslashes are used. If your macro has parameters, you must specify the expected number thus the 3 at the end of the array in
taylor: ["Macro","\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty} \\frac{{#1}^{(n)} \\left({#2}\\right)}{n!} {\\left( {#3}  {#2} \\right)}^n", 3],
Finally, you can use the Taylor extension in a test page:
<!MathJax/unpacked/test2.html>
...
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["Taylor.js"] }});
</script>
...
<body>
\[ \exp(x) = \expexpansion \]
\[ f(x) = \taylor{f}{x}{a} \]
\[ \log(1+h) = \taylorlog{h} \text{ for } h \lt 1 \]
\[ \sin\left(\frac{\epsilon}{3}\right) =
\taylorsin{\left(\frac{\epsilon}{3}\right)} \]
</body>
Dealing with Dependencies¶
Suppose that we want to create another extension Taylor2.js that uses some command from Taylor.js. Hence Taylor2 depends on Taylor and we should do some synchronization. We have already seen that the Taylor extension waits for the “TeX Jax Ready” signal before defining the macros. In order to inform the Taylor2 extensions when it is ready, the Taylor extension must itself send a “TeX Taylor Ready” signal. The appropriate place for that is of course after the macros are defined:
// unpacked/extensions/TeX/Taylor.js
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready", function () {
MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.Add({
...
});
MathJax.Hub.Startup.signal.Post("TeX Taylor Ready");
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/TeX/Taylor.js");
Now define Taylor2.js as follows:
// unpacked/extensions/TeX/Taylor2.js
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready", function () {
MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.Add({
macros: {
sinexpansion: ["Extension", "Taylor"]
}
});
});
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Taylor Ready", function () {
MathJax.Hub.Insert(MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions, {
macros: {
sinexpansion: ["Macro", "\\taylorsin{x}"]
}
});
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/TeX/Taylor2.js");
When the input Jax is ready, \sinexpansion
will be define as a
function that loads the Taylor extension and restarts the processing
afterward. When the Taylor extension is ready, \sinexpansion
becomes the wanted \\taylorsin{x}
definition. Now, you can use
this command in a test3 page. Note that only the Taylor2 extension is
specified in the list of extensions to load (Taylor will be loaded
when the sinexpansion macro is first used).
<!MathJax/unpacked/test3.html>
...
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["Taylor2.js"] }});
</script>
...
<body>
\[ \sin(x) = \sinexpansion \]
...
We won’t give the details in this tutorial, but note that other MathJax components have similar methods to stop, wait for an extension, and restart the execution again.
More Advanced Extensions¶
In general, writing more sophisticated extensions require a good
understanding of the MathJax codebase. Although the public MathJax
API is available in the
documentation, this is not always the case for the internal code. The
rule of thumb is thus to read the relevant jax.js
files in
unpacked/jax
(if necessary the Javascript files they can load, too)
and to make your extension redefine or expand the code.
Here is an example. We modify the behavior of \frac
so that the
outermost fractions are drawn normally but those that have a \frac
ancestor are drawn bevelled. We also define a new command \bfrac
that draws bevelled fractions by default. It has an optional parameter
to indicate whether we want a bevelled fraction and can take values
“auto” (like \frac
), “true” or “false”. One has to read carefully
the TeX parser to understand how this extension is working.
//unpacked/extensions/bevelledFraction.js
MathJax.Hub.Register.StartupHook("TeX Jax Ready", function () {
MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Definitions.Add({
macros: {
frac: "Frac",
bfrac: "BFrac"
}
}, null, true);
MathJax.InputJax.TeX.Parse.Augment({
Frac: function (name) {
var old = this.stack.env.bevelled; this.stack.env.bevelled = true;
var num = this.ParseArg(name);
var den = this.ParseArg(name);
this.stack.env.bevelled = old;
var frac = MathJax.ElementJax.mml.mfrac(num, den);
frac.bevelled = this.stack.env.bevelled;
this.Push(frac);
},
BFrac: function (name) {
var bevelled = this.GetBrackets(name);
if (bevelled === "auto")
bevelled = this.stack.env.bevelled;
else
bevelled = (bevelled !== "false");
var old = this.stack.env.bevelled; this.stack.env.bevelled = true;
var num = this.ParseArg(name);
var den = this.ParseArg(name);
this.stack.env.bevelled = old;
var frac = MathJax.ElementJax.mml.mfrac(num, den);
frac.bevelled = bevelled;
this.Push(frac);
}
});
});
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete("[MathJax]/extensions/TeX/mfracBevelled.js");
Again you can use this command in a test4
page.
<!MathJax/unpacked/test4.html>
...
<script type="text/xmathjaxconfig">
MathJax.Hub.Config({ TeX: { extensions: ["mfracBevelled.js"] }});
</script>
...
\[ \frac a b \]
\[ \frac {\frac a b}{\frac c d} \]
\[ \bfrac a b \]
\[ \bfrac[true] a b \]
\[ \bfrac[false] a b \]
\[ \bfrac[auto] a b \]
\[ \frac {\bfrac[auto] a b}{\bfrac[false] a b} \]
\[ \bfrac {\frac a b}{\bfrac[auto] a b} \]
...
MathJax Debugging tips¶
This page documents basic tips for debugging MathJax in your application.
Using unpacked resources¶
MathJax provides both packaged (minified) and unpacked versions of all its components. For debugging, it is useful to switch to an unpacked version.
For example, if your copy of MathJax lives at
https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js
just add unpacked/
before
MathJax.js
, e.g.,
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://example.com/mathjax/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
</script>
to
<script type="text/javascript" async
src="https://example.com/mathjax/unpacked/MathJax.js?config=TeXMMLAM_CHTML">
</script>
Getting traceback information¶
MathJax.Hub.lastError
MathJax stores the error object from the last Math Processing Error
in MathJax.Hub.lastError
. This allows developers to access the
stacktrace information when needed.
Add listener for MathJax errors¶
MathJax provides a detailed signaling infrastructure which a developers can hook into.
The following example hooks into Math Processing Errors.
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook("Math Processing Error",function (message) {
// do something with the error. message[2] is the Error object that records the problem.
});
Another example hooks into TeX parsing errors.
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook("TeX Jax  parse error",function (message) {
// do something with the error. message[1] will contain the data about the error.
});
Note
For more information, see The MathJax API.
MathJaxnode API for NodeJS¶
MathJax can be used in NodeJS via the MathJaxnode library.
To install via NPM use
npm install mathjaxnode
For more information visit the GitHub repository.
The MathJax API¶
The following links document the various components that make up
MathJax. These are implemented as JavaScript objects contained within
the single global variable, MathJax
. Although JavaScript includes
an object system with some inheritance capabilities, they do not
constitute a full objectoriented programming model, so MathJax
implements its own object library. This means there is an ambiguity
when we speak of an “object”, as it could be either a native
JavaScript object, or a MathJax object. When the distinction is
important, we will use Object (capitalized) or MathJax.Object for
the latter; the javascript object will always be listed in lower
case.
You may also want to view the advanced topics on the main MathJax documentation page.
The MathJax variable¶
MathJax has a single global variable, MathJax
, in which all its
data, and the data for loaded components, are stored. The MathJax
variable is a nested structure, with its toplevel properties being
objects themselves.
Main MathJax Components¶

MathJax.Hub
Contains the MathJax hub code and variables, including the startup code, the onload handler, the browser data, and so forth.

MathJax.Ajax
Contains the code for loading external modules and creating stylesheets. Most of the code that causes MathJax to operate asynchronously is handled here.

MathJax.Message
Contains the code to handle the intermittent message window that periodically appears in the lower lefthand corner of the window.

MathJax.HTML
Contains support code for creating HTML elements dynamically from descriptions stored in JavaScript objects.

MathJax.CallBack
Contains the code for managing MathJax callbacks, queues and signals.

MathJax.Extension
Initially empty, this is where extensions can load their code. For example, the tex2jax preprocessor creates
MathJax.Extension.tex2jax
for its code and variables.

MathJax.Menu
Initially null, this is where the MathJax contextual menu is stored, when
extensions/MathMenu.js
is loaded.

MathJax.Localization
Contains the code for handling localized strings for MathJax’s interface.

MathJax.Object
Contains the code for the MathJax objectoriented programming model.

MathJax.InputJax
The base class for all input jax objects. Subclasses for specific input jax are created as subobjects of
MathJax.InputJax
. For example, the TeX input jax loads itself asMathJax.InputJax.TeX
.

MathJax.OutputJax
The base class for all output jax objects. Subclasses for specific output jax are created as subobjects of
MathJax.OutputJax
. For example, the HTMLCSS output jax loads itself asMathJax.OutputJax["HTMLCSS"]
.

MathJax.ElementJax
The base class for all element jax objects. Subclasses for specific element jax are created as subobjects of
MathJax.ElementJax
. For example, the mml element jax loads itself asMathJax.ElementJax.mml
.
Properties¶

MathJax.version
The version number of the MathJax library as a whole.

MathJax.fileversion
The version number of the
MathJax.js
file specifically.

MathJax.isReady
This is set to
true
when MathJax is set up and ready to perform typesetting actions (and isnull
otherwise).
The MathJax.Hub Object¶
The MathJax Hub, MathJax.Hub, is the main control structure for
MathJax. It is where input and output jax are tied together,
and it is what handles processing of the MathJax <script>
tags.
Processing of the mathematics on the page may require external files
to be loaded (when the mathematics includes less common functionality,
for example, that is defined in an extension file), and since file
loading is asynchronous, a number of the methods below may return
before their actions are completed. For this reason, they include
callback functions that are called when the action completes. These
can be used to synchronize actions that require the mathematics to be
completed before those actions occur. See the Using Callbacks documentation for more details.
Properties¶

config: { ... }
This holds the configuration parameters for MathJax. Set these values using
MathJax.Hub.Config()
described below. The options and their default values are given in the Core Options reference page.

processSectionDelay: 50
The pause (in milliseconds) between input and output phases of MathJax’s processing. Set this to
0
to avoid jitter when updating output frequently (e.g., in a live preview environment).

processUpdateTime: 250
The minimum time (in milliseconds) between updates of the “Processing Math” message. After this amount of time has passed, and after the next equation has finished being processed, MathJax will stop processing momentarily so that the update message can be displayed, and so that the browser can handle user interaction.

processUpdateDelay: 10
The amount of time (in milliseconds) that MathJax pauses after issuing its processing message before starting the processing again (to give browsers time to handle user interaction).

signal
The hub processing signal (tied to the
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook()
method).

queue
MathJax’s main processing queue. Use
MathJax.Hub.Queue()
to push callbacks onto this queue.

Browser
The name of the browser as determined by MathJax. It will be one of
Firefox
,Safari
,Chrome
,Opera
,MSIE
,Konqueror
, orunknown
. This is actually an object with additional properties and methods concerning the browser:
version
The browser version number, e.g.,
"4.0"

isMac and isPC
These are boolean values that indicate whether the browser is running on a Macintosh computer or a Windows computer. They will both be
false
for a Linux computer.

isMobile
This is
true
when MathJax is running a mobile version of a WebKit or Geckobased browser.

isFirefox, isSafari, isChrome, isOpera, isMSIE, isKonqueror
These are
true
when the browser is the indicated one, andfalse
otherwise.

versionAtLeast(version)
This tests whether the browser version is at least that given in the version string. Note that you can not simply do a numeric comparison, as version 4.10 should be considered later than 4.9, for example. Similarly, 4.10 is different from 4.1, for instance.

Select(choices)
This lets you perform browserspecific functions. Here, choices is an object whose properties are the names of the browsers and whose values are the functions to be performed. Each function is passed one parameter, which is the
MathJax.Hub.Browser
object. You do not need to include every browser as one of your choices — only those for which you need to do special processing. For example:MathJax.Hub.Browser.Select({ MSIE: function (browser) { if (browser.versionAtLeast("8.0")) {... do version 8 stuff ... } ... do general MSIE stuff ... }, Firefox: function (browser) { if (browser.isMac) {... do Mac stuff ... } ... do general Firefox stuff } });


inputJax
An object storing the MIME types associated with the various registered input jax (these are the types of the
<script>
tags that store the math to be processed by each input jax).

outputJax
An object storing the output jax associate with the various element jax MIME types for the registered output jax.
Methods¶

Config
(options)¶ Sets the configuration options (stored in
MathJax.Hub.config
) to the values stored in the options object. See Configuring MathJax for details on how this is used and the options that you can set.Parameters:  options — object containing options to be set
Returns: null

Configured
()¶ When
delayStartupUntil
is specified in the configuration file or in the script that loadsMathJax.js
, MathJax’s startup sequence is delayed until this routine is called. See Configuring MathJax for details on how this is used.Returns: null

Register.
PreProcessor
(callback)¶ Used by preprocessors to register themselves with MathJax so that they will be called during the
MathJax.Hub.PreProcess()
action.Parameters:  callback — the callback specification for the preprocessor
Returns: null

Register.
MessageHook
(type, callback)¶ Registers a listener for a particular message being sent to the hub processing signal (where PreProcessing, Processing, and New Math messages are sent). When the message equals the type, the callback will be called with the message as its parameter.
The following is an example for using the MessageHook to list internal errors within MathJax which would otherwise be silent:
MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook("TeX Jax  parse error",function (message) { // do something with the error. message[1] will contain the data about the error. }); MathJax.Hub.Register.MessageHook("Math Processing Error",function (message) { // do something with the error. message[2] is the Error object that records the problem. });
Parameters:  type — a string indicating the message to look for
 callback — a callback specification
Returns: null

Register.
StartupHook
(type, callback)¶ Registers a listener for a particular message being sent to the startup signal (where initialization and component startup messages are sent). When the message equals the type, the callback will be called with the message as its parameter. See the Using Signals documentation for more details.
Parameters:  type — a string indicating the message to look for
 callback — a callback specification
Returns: null

Register.
LoadHook
(file, callback)¶ Registers a callback to be called when a particular file is completely loaded and processed. (The callback is called when the file makes its
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete()
call.) The file should be the complete file name, e.g.,"[MathJax]/config/default.js"
.Parameters:  file — the name of the file to wait for
 callback — a callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Queue
(callback, ...) Pushes the given callbacks onto the main MathJax command queue. This synchronizes the commands with MathJax so that they will be performed in the proper order even when some run asynchronously. See Using Queues for more details about how to use queues, and the MathJax queue in particular. You may supply as many callback specifications in one call to the
Queue()
method as you wish.Parameters:  callback — a callback specification
Returns: the callback object for the last callback added to the queue

Typeset
([element[, callback]])¶ Calls the preprocessors on the given element (or elements if it is an array of elements), and then typesets any math elements within the element. If no element is provided, the whole document is processed. The element is either the DOM id of the element, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the process is complete. See the Modifying Math section for details of how to use this method properly.
Parameters:  element — the element(s) whose math is to be typeset
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

PreProcess
([element[, callback]])¶ Calls the loaded preprocessors on the entire document, or on the given DOM element (or elements, if it is an array of elements). The element is either the DOM id of the element, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the processing is complete.
Parameters:  element — the element to be preprocessed
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Process
([element[, callback]])¶ Scans either the entire document or a given DOM element (or array of elements) for MathJax
<script>
tags and processes the math those tags contain. The element is either the DOM id of the element to scan, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the processing is complete.Parameters:  element — the element(s) to be processed
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Update
([element[, callback]])¶ Scans either the entire document or a given DOM element (or elements if it is an array of elements) for mathematics that has changed since the last time it was processed, or is new, and typesets the mathematics they contain. The element is either the DOM id of the element to scan, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the processing is complete.
Parameters:  element — the element(s) to be updated
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Reprocess
([element[, callback]])¶ Removes any typeset mathematics from the document or DOM element (or elements if it is an array of elements), and then processes the mathematics again, retypesetting everything. This may be necessary, for example, if the CSS styles have changed and those changes would affect the mathematics. Reprocess calls both the input and output jax to completely rebuild the data for mathematics. The element is either the DOM id of the element to scan, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the processing is complete.
Parameters:  element — the element(s) to be reprocessed
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Rerender
([element[, callback]])¶ Removes any typeset mathematics from the document or DOM element (or elements if it is an array of elements), and then renders the mathematics again, retypesetting everything from the current internal version (without calling the input jax again). The element is either the DOM id of the element to scan, a reference to the DOM element itself, or an array of id’s or references. The callback is called when the processing is complete.
Parameters:  element — the element(s) to be reprocessed
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

getAllJax
([element])¶ Returns a list of all the element jax in the document or a specific DOM element. The element is either the DOM id of the element, or a reference to the DOM element itself.
Parameters:  element — the element to be searched
Returns: array of element jax objects

getJaxByType
(type[, element])¶ Returns a list of all the element jax of a given MIMEtype in the document or a specific DOM element. The element is either the DOM id of the element to search, or a reference to the DOM element itself.
Parameters:  type — MIMEtype of element jax to find
 element — the element to be searched
Returns: array of element jax objects

getJaxByInputType
(type[, element])¶ Returns a list of all the element jax associated with input
<script>
tags with the given MIMEtype within the given DOM element or the whole document. The element is either the DOM id of the element to search, or a reference to the DOM element itself.Parameters:  type — MIMEtype of input (e.g.,
"math/tex"
)  element — the element to be searched
Returns: array of element jax objects
 type — MIMEtype of input (e.g.,

getJaxFor
(element)¶ Returns the element jax associated with a given DOM element. If the element does not have an associated element jax,
null
is returned. The element is either the DOM id of the element, or a reference to the DOM element itself.Parameters:  element — the element whose element jax is required
Returns: element jax object or
null

isJax
(element)¶ Returns
0
if the element is not a<script>
that can be processed by MathJax or the result of an output jax, returns1
if the element is an unprocessed<script>
tag that could be handled by MathJax, and returns1
if the element is a processed<script>
tag or an element that is the result of an output jax.Parameters:  element — the element to inspect
Returns: integer (1, 0, 1)

setRenderer
(renderer[, type])¶ Sets the output jax for the given element jax
type
(orjax/mml
if none is specified) to be the one given byrenderer
, which must be the name of a renderer, such asNativeMML
orHTMLCSS
. Note that this does not cause the math on the page to be rerendered; it just sets the renderer for output in the future (call :meth:Rerender()
above to replace the current renderings by new ones).Parameters:  renderer — the name of the output jax to use for rendering
 type — the element jax MIME type whose renderer to set
Returns: null

Insert
(dst, src)¶ Inserts data from the src object into the dst object. The key:value pairs in src are (recursively) copied into dst, so that if value is itself an object, its content is copied into the corresponding object in dst. That is, objects within src are merged into the corresponding objects in dst (they don’t replace them).
Parameters:  dst — the destination object
 src — the source object
Returns: the modified destination object

formatError
(script, error)¶ This is called when an internal error occurs during the processing of a math element (i.e., an error in the MathJax code itself). The script is a reference to the
<script>
tag where the error occurred, and error is theError
object for the error. The default action is to insert an HTML snippet at the location of the script, but this routine can be overriden during MathJax configuration in order to perform some other action.MathJax.Hub.lastError
holds theerror
value of the last error on the page.Parameters:  script — the
<script>
tag causing the error  error — the
Error
object for the error
Returns: null
 script — the
The MathJax.Ajax Object¶
The MathJax.Ajax structure holds the data and functions for handling loading of external modules. Modules are loaded only once, even if called for in several places. The loading of files is asynchronous, and so the code that requests an external module will continue to run even when that module has not completed loading, so it is important to be aware of the timing issues this may cause. Similarly, creating or loading stylesheets is an asynchronous action. In particular, all actions that rely on the file or stylesheet having been loaded must be delayed until after the file has been downloaded completely. This is the reason for the large number of routines that take callback functions.
Any operation that could cause the loading of a file or stylesheet must be synchronized with the rest of the code via such callbacks. Since processing any mathematics might cause files to be loaded (e.g., littleused markup might be implemented in an extension that is loaded only when that markup is used), any code that dynamically typesets mathematics will need to be structured to use callbacks to guarantee that the mathematics has been completely processed before the code tries to use it. See the Synchronizing with MathJax documentation for details on how to do this properly.
Properties¶

timeout
Number of milliseconds to wait for a file to load before it is considered to have failed to load.
Default: 15 seconds

STATUS.OK
The value used to indicate that a file load has occurred successfully.

STATUS.ERROR
The value used to indicate that a file load has caused an error or a timeout to occur.

loaded
An object containing the names of the files that have been loaded (or requested) so far.
MathJax.Ajax.loaded["file"]
will be nonnull
when the file has been loaded, with the value being theMathJax.Ajax.STATUS
value of the load attempt.

loading
An object containing the files that are currently loading, the callbacks that are to be run when they load or timeout, and additional internal data.

loadHooks
An object containing the load hooks for the various files, set up by the
LoadHook()
method, or by theMathJax.Hub.Register.LoadHook()
method.
Methods¶

Require
(file[, callback])¶ Loads the given file if it hasn’t been already. The file must be a JavaScript file or a CSS stylesheet; i.e., it must end in
.js
or.css
. Alternatively, it can be an object with a single key:value pair where the key is one ofjs
orcss
and the value is the file of that type to be loaded (this makes it possible to have the file be created by a CGI script, for example, or to use adata::
URL). The file must be relative to the MathJax home directory and can not contain../
file path components.When the file is completely loaded and run, the callback, if provided, will be executed passing it the status of the file load. If there was an error while loading the file, or if the file fails to load within the time limit given by
MathJax.Ajax.timout
, the status will beMathJax.Ajax.STATUS.ERROR
otherwise it will beMathJax.Ajax.STATUS.OK
. If the file is already loaded, the callback will be called immediately and the file will not be loaded again.Parameters:  file — name of the file to be loaded
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Load
(file[, callback])¶ Used internally to load a given file without checking if it already has been loaded, or where it is to be found.
Parameters:  file — name of the file to be loaded
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

loadComplete
(file)¶ Called from within the loaded files to inform MathJax that the file has been completely loaded and initialized. The file parameter is the name of the file that has been loaded. This routine will cause any callback functions registered for the file or included in the
MathJax.Ajax.Require()
calls to be executed, passing them the status of the load (MathJax.Ajax.STATUS.OK
orMathJax.Ajax.STATUS.ERROR
) as their last parameter.Parameters:  file — name of the file that has been loaded
Returns: null

loadTimeout
(file)¶ Called when the timeout period is over and the file hasn’t loaded. This indicates an error condition, and the
MathJax.Ajax.loadError()
method will be executed, then the file’s callback will be run withMathJax.Ajax.STATUS.ERROR
as its parameter.Parameters:  file — name of the file that timed out
Returns: null

loadError
(file)¶ The default error handler called when a file fails to load. It puts a warning message into the MathJax message box on screen.
Parameters:  file — the name of the file that failed to load
Returns: null

LoadHook
(file, callback)¶ Registers a callback to be executed when the given file is loaded. The file load operation needs to be started when this method is called, so it can be used to register a hook for a file that may be loaded in the future.
Parameters:  file — the name of the file to wait for
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Preloading
(file1[, file2...])¶ Used with combined configuration files to indicate what files are in the configuration file. Marks the files as loading (since there will never be an explicit
Load()
orRequire()
call for them), so that loadhooks and other loadrelated events can be properly processed when theloadComplete()
occurs.Parameters:  file1, file2, … — the names of the files in the combined file
Returns: null

Styles
(styles[, callback])¶ Creates a stylesheet from the given style data. styles can either be a string containing a stylesheet definition, or an object containing a CSS Style Object. For example:
MathJax.Ajax.Styles("body {fontfamily: serif; fontstyle: italic}");
and
MathJax.Ajax.Styles({ body: { "fontfamily": "serif", "fontstyle": "italic" } });
both set the body font family and style.
The callback routine is called when the stylesheet has been created and is available for use.
Parameters:  styles — CSS style object for the styles to set
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object
Note
Internet Explorer has a limit of 32 dynamically created stylesheets, so it is best to combine your styles into one large group rather than making several smaller calls.

fileURL
(file)¶ Returns a complete URL to a file (replacing
[MathJax]
with the actual root URL location).Parameters:  file — the file name possibly including
[MathJax]
Returns: the full URL for the file
 file — the file name possibly including
The MathJax.Message Object¶
The MathJax.Message
object contains the methods used to manage the
small message area that appears at the lowerleft corner of the
window. MathJax uses this area to inform the user of timeconsuming
actions, like loading files and fonts, or how far along in the
typesetting process it is.
The page author can customize the look of the message window by
setting styles for the #MathJax_Message
selector (which can be
set via
MathJax.Hub.Config({
styles: {
"#MathJax_Message": {
...
}
}
});
Because of a bug in Internet Explorer, in order to change the side of
the screen where the message occurs, you must also set the side
for #MathJax_MSIE_Frame
, as in
MathJax.Hub.Config({
styles: {
"#MathJax_Message": {left: "", right: 0},
"#MathJax_MSIE_Frame": {left: "", right: 0}
}
});
It is possible that a message is already being displayed when another message needs to be posted. For this reason, when a message is displayed on screen, it gets an id number that is used when you want to remove or change that message. That way, when a message is removed, the previous message (if any) can be redisplayed if it hasn’t been removed. This allows for intermittent messages (like file loading messages) to obscure longerterm messages (like “Processing Math” messages) temporarily.
Methods¶

Set
(message[, n[, delay]])¶ This sets the message being displayed to the given message string. If n is not
null
, it represents a message id number and the text is set for that message id, otherwise a new id number is created for this message. If delay is provided, it is the time (in milliseconds) to display the message before it is cleared. If delay is not provided, the message will not be removed automatically; you must call theMathJax.Messsage.Clear()
method by hand to remove it. If message is an array, then it represents a localizable string, as described in the Localization strings documentation.Parameters:  message — the text to display in the message area
 n — the message id number
 delay — amout of time to display the message
Returns: the message id number for this message.

Clear
(n[, delay])¶ This causes the message with id n to be removed after the given delay, in milliseconds. The default delay is 600 milliseconds.
Parameters:  n — the message id number
 delay — the delay before removing the message
Returns: null

Remove
()¶ This removes the message frame from the window (it will reappear when future messages are set, however).
Returns: null

File
(file)¶ This sets the message area to a “Loading file” message, where file is the name of the file (with
[MathJax]
representing the root directory).Parameters:  file — the name of the file being loaded
Returns: the message id number for the message created

filterText
(text, n)¶ This method is called on each message before it is displayed. It can be used to modify (e.g., shorten) the various messages before they are displayed. The default action is to check if the
messageStyle
configuration parameter issimple
, and if so, convert loading and processing messages to a simpler form. This method can be overridden to perform other sanitization of the message strings.Parameters:  text — the text of the message to be posted
 n — the id number of the message to be posted
Returns: the modified message text

Log
()¶ Returns a string of all the messages issued so far, separated by newlines. This is used in debugging MathJax operations.
Returns: string of all messages so far
The MathJax.HTML Object¶
The MathJax.HTML
object provides routines for creating HTML
elements and adding them to the page, and in particular, it contains
the code that processes MathJax’s HTML snippets
and turns them into actual DOM objects. It also implements the
methods used to manage the cookies used by MathJax.
Properties¶

Cookie.prefix: "mjx"
The prefix used for names of cookies stored by MathJax.

Cookie.expires: 365
The expiration time (in days) for cookies created by MathJax.
Methods¶

Element
(type[, attributes[, contents]])¶ Creates a DOM element of the given type. If attributes is non
null
, it is an object that contains key:value pairs of attributes to set for the newly created element. If contents is nonnull
, it is an HTML snippet that describes the contents to create for the element. For examplevar div = MathJax.HTML.Element( "div", {id: "MathDiv", style:{border:"1px solid", padding:"5px"}}, ["Here is math: \\(x+1\\)",["br"],"and a display $$x+1\\over x1$$"] );
Parameters:  type — node type to be created
 attributes — object specifying attributes to set
 contents — HTML snippet representing contents of node
Returns: the DOM element created

addElement
(parent, type[, attributes[, content]])¶ Creates a DOM element and appends it to the parent node provided. It is equivalent to
parent.appendChild(MathJax.HTML.Element(type,attributes,content))
Parameters:  parent — the node where the element will be added
 attributes — object specifying attributes to set
 contents — HTML snippet representing contents of node
Returns: the DOM element created

TextNode
(text)¶ Creates a DOM text node with the given text as its content.
Parameters:  text — the text for the node
Returns: the new text node

addText
(parent, text)¶ Creates a DOM text node with the given text and appends it to the parent node.
Parameters:  parent — the node where the text will be added
 text — the text for the new node
Returns: the new text node

setScript
(script, text)¶ Sets the contents of the
script
element to be the giventext
, properly taking into account the browser limitations and bugs.Parameters:  script — the script whose content is to be set
 text — the text that is to be the script’s new content
Returns: null

getScript
(script)¶ Gets the contents of the
script
element, properly taking into account the browser limitations and bugs.Parameters:  script — the script whose content is to be retrieved
Returns: the text of the
script

Cookie.
Set
(name, data)¶ Creates a MathJax cookie using the
MathJax.HTML.Cookie.prefix
and the name as the cookie name, and the key:value pairs in the data object as the data for the cookie. For example,MathJax.HTML.Cookie.Set("test",{x:42, y:"It Works!"});
will create a cookie named “mjx.test” that stores the values of
x
andy
provided in the data object. This data can be retrieved using theMathJax.HTML.Cookie.Get()
method discussed below.Parameters:  name — the name that identifies the cookie
 data — object containing the data to store in the cookie
Returns: null

Cookie.
Get
(name[, obj])¶ Looks up the data for the cookie named name and merges the data into the given obj object, or returns a new object containing the data. For instance, given the cookie stored by the example above,
var data = MathJax.HTML.Cookie.Get("test");
would set
data
to{x:42, y:"It Works!"}
, whilevar data = {x:10, z:"Safe"}; MathJax.HTML.Cookie.Get("test",data);
would leave
data
as{x:42, y:"It Works!", z:"Safe"}
.
The MathJax.Callback Class¶
The MathJax.Callback
object is one of the key mechanisms used by
MathJax to synchronize its actions with those that occur
asynchronously, like loading files and stylesheets. A Callback
object is used to tie the execution of a function to the completion of
an asynchronous action. See Synchronizing with MathJax for more details, and Using Callbacks in particular for examples of how to specify and
use MathJax Callback objects.
Specifying a callback¶
When a method includes a callback as one of its arguments, that callback can be specified in a number of different ways, depending on the functionality that is required of the callback. The easiest case is to simply provide a function to be called, but it is also possible to include data to pass to the function when it is executed, and even the object that will be used as the javascript this object when the function is called.
Most functions that take callbacks as arguments accept a callback
specification rather than an actual callback object, though you can
use the MathJax.Callback()
function to convert a callback
specification into a Callback object if needed.
A callback specification is any one of the following:
fn
A function that is to be called when the callback is executed. No additional data is passed to it (other than what it is called with at the time the callback is executed), and this will be the window object.
[fn]
An array containing a function to be called when the callback is executed (as above).
[fn, data...]
An array containing a function together with data to be passed to that function when the callback is executed; this is still the window object. For example,
[function (x,y) {return x+y}, 2, 3]would specify a callback that would pass
2
and3
to the given function, and it would return their sum,5
, when the callback is executed.
[object, fn]
An array containing an object to use as this and a function to call for the callback. For example,
[{x:'foo', y:'bar'}, function () {this.x}]would produce a callback that returns the string
"foo"
when it is called.
[object, fn, data...]
Similar to the previous case, but with data that is passed to the function as well.
["method", object]
Here, object is an object that has a method called method, and the callback will execute that method (with the object as this) when it is called. For example,
["toString",[1,2,3,4]]would call the toString method on the array
[1,2,3,4]
when the callback is called, returning1,2,3,4
.
["method", object, data...]
Similar to the previous case, but with data that is passed to the method. E.g.,
["slice",[1,2,3,4],1,3]would perform the equivalent of
[1,2,3,4].slice(1,3)
, which returns the array[2,3]
as a result.
{hook: fn, data: [...], object: this}
Here the data for the callback are given in an associative array of key:value pairs. The value of hook is the function to call, the value of data is an array of the arguments to pass to the function, and the value of object is the object to use as this in the function call. The specification need not include all three key:value pairs; any that are missing get default values (a function that does nothing, an empty array, and the window object, respectively).
"string"
This specifies a callback where the string is executed via an
eval()
statement. The code is run in the global context, so any variables or functions created by the string become part of the global namespace. The return value is the value of the last statement executed in the string.
Executing a Callback Object¶
The Callback object is itself a function, and calling that function executes the callback. You can pass the callback additional parameters, just as you can any function, and these will be added to the callback function’s argument list following any data that was supplied at the time the callback was created. For example
var f = function (x,y) {return x + " and " +y}
var cb = MathJax.Callback([f, "foo"]);
var result = cb("bar"); // sets result to "foo and bar"
Usually, the callback is not executed by the code that creates it (as it is in the example above), but by some other code that runs at a later time at the completion of some other activity (say the loading of a file), or in response to a user action. For example:
function f(x) {alert("x contains "+x)};
function DelayedX(time) {
var x = "hi";
setTimeout(MathJax.Callback([f, x], time));
}
The DelayedX
function arranges for the function f
to be called at
a later time, passing it the value of a local variable, x
. Normally,
this would require the use of a closure, but that is not needed when a
MathJax.Callback object is used.
Callback Object Properties¶

hook
The function to be called when the callback is executed.

data
An array containing the arguments to pass to the callback function when it is executed.

object
The object to use as this during the call to the callback function.

called
Set to
true
after the callback has been called, and undefined otherwise. A callback will not be executed a second time unless the callback’sreset()
method is called first, or itsautoReset
property is set totrue
.

autoReset
Set this to
true
if you want to be able to call the callback more than once. (This is the case for signal listeners, for example).

isCallback
Always set to
true
(used to detect if an object is a callback or not).
MathJax.Callback Methods¶

Delay
(time[, callback])¶ Waits for the specified time (given in milliseconds) and then performs the callback. It returns the Callback object (or a blank one if none was supplied). The returned callback structure has a timeout property set to the result of the
setTimeout()
call that was used to perform the wait so that you can cancel the wait, if needed. ThusMathJax.Callback.Delay()
can be used to start a timeout delay that executes the callback if an action doesn’t occur within the given time (and if the action does occur, the timeout can be canceled). SinceMathJax.Callback.Delay()
returns a callback structure, it can be used in a callback queue to insert a delay between queued commands.Parameters:  time — the amount of time to wait
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Queue
([callback, ...])¶ Creates a MathJax.CallBack.Queue object and pushes the given callbacks into the queue. See Using Queues for more details about MathJax queues.
Parameters:  callback — one or more callback specifications
Returns: the Queue object

Signal
(name)¶ Looks for a named signal, creates it if it doesn’t already exist, and returns the signal object. See Using Signals for more details.
Parameters:  name — name of the signal to get or create
Returns: the Signal object

ExecuteHooks
(hooks[, data[, reset]])¶ Calls each callback in the hooks array (or the single hook if it is not an array), passing it the arguments stored in the data array. If reset is
true
, then the callback’sreset()
method will be called before each hook is executed. If any of the hooks returns a Callback object, then it collects those callbacks and returns a new callback that will execute when all the ones returned by the hooks have been completed. Otherwise,MathJax.Callback.ExecuteHooks()
returnsnull
.Parameters:  hooks — array of hooks to be called, or a hook
 data — array of arguments to pass to each hook in turn
 reset —
true
if thereset()
method should be called
Returns: callback that waits for all the hooks to complete, or
null

Hooks
(reset)¶ Creates a prioritized list of hooks that are called in order based on their priority (low priority numbers are handled first). This is meant to replace
MathJax.Callback.ExecuteHooks()
and is used internally for signal callbacks, pre and postfilters, and other lists of callbacks.Parameters:  reset —
true
if callbacks can be called more than once
Returns: the Hooks object
The list has the following methods:

Add
(hook[, priority])¶ Add a callback to the prioritized list. If
priority
is not provided, the default is 10. Thehook
is a Callback specification as described above.Parameters:  hook — callback specification to add to the list
 priority — priority of the hook in the list (default: 10)
Returns: the callback object being added

Remove
(hook) Remove a given hook (as returned from
Add()
above) from the prioritized list.Parameters:  hook — the callback to be removed
Returns: null

Execute
()¶ Execute the list of callbacks, resetting them if requested. If any of the hooks return callbacks, then
Execute()
returns a callback that will be executed when they all have completed.Returns: a callback object or null
 reset —
The MathJax.Callback.Queue Class¶
The MathJax.Callback.Queue
object is one of the key mechanisms
used by MathJax to synchronize its actions with those that occur
asynchronously, like loading files and stylesheets. A Queue object
is used to coordinate a sequence of actions so that they are performed
one after another, even when one action has to wait for an
asynchronous process to complete. This guarantees that operations are
performed in the right order even when the code must wait for some
other action to occur. See Synchronizing with MathJax for more details, and Using Queues in particular for examples of how to specify and use
MathJax Queue objects.
Properties¶

pending
This is nonzero when the queue is waiting for a command to complete, i.e. a command being processed returns a Callback object, indicating that the queue should wait for that action to complete before processing additional commands.

running
This is nonzero when the queue is executing one of the commands in the queue.

queue
An array containing the queued commands that are yet to be performed.
Methods¶

Push
(callback, ...)¶ Adds commands to the queue and runs them (if the queue is not pending or running another command). If one of the callbacks is an actual Callback object rather than a callback specification, then the command queued is an internal command to wait for the given callback to complete. That is, that callback is not itself queued to be executed, but a wait for that callback is queued. The
Push()
method returns the last callback that was added to the queue (so that it can be used for further synchronization, say as an entry in some other queue).Parameters:  callback — the callback specifications to be added to the queue
Returns: the last callback object added to the queue

Process
() Process the commands in the queue, provided the queue is not waiting for another command to complete. This method is used internally; you should not need to call it yourself.

Suspend
()¶ Increments the running property, indicating that any commands that are added to the queue should not be executed immediately, but should be queued for later execution (when its
Resume()
is called). This method is used internally; you should not need to call it yourself.

Resume
()¶ Decrements the running property, if it is positive. When it is zero, commands can be processed, but that is not done automatically — you would need to call
Process()
to make that happen. This method is used internally; you should not need to call it yourself.

wait
(callback)¶ Used internally when an entry in the queue is a Callback object rather than a callback specification. A callback to this function (passing it the original callback) is queued instead, and it simply returns the callback it was passed. Since the queue will wait for a callback if it is the return value of one of the commands it executes, this effectively makes the queue wait for the original callback at that point in the command queue.
Parameters:  callback — the function to complete before returning to the queue
Returns: the passed callback function

call
()¶ An internal function used to restart processing of the queue after it has been waiting for a command to complete.
The MathJax.Callback.Signal Class¶
The MathJax.Callback.Signal
object is one of the key mechanisms
used by MathJax to synchronize its actions with those that occur
asynchronously, like loading files and stylesheets. A Signal object
is used to publicize the fact that MathJax has performed certain
actions, giving other code running the web page the chance to react to
those actions. See Synchronizing with MathJax for more details, and Using Signals in particular for examples of how to specify and use
MathJax Signal objects.
The Callback Signal object is a subclass of the Callback Queue object.
Properties¶

name
The name of the signal. Each signal is named so that various components can access it. The first one to request a particular signal causes it to be created, and other requests for the signal return references to the same object.

posted
Array used internally to store the post history so that when new listeners express interests in this signal, they can be informed of the signals that have been posted so far. This can be cleared using the signal’s
Clear()
method.

listeners
Array of callbacks to the listeners who have expressed interest in hearing about posts to this signal. When a post occurs, the listeners are called, each in turn, passing them the message that was posted.
Methods¶

Post
(message[, callback])¶ Posts a message to all the listeners for the signal. The listener callbacks are called in turn (with the message as an argument), and if any return a Callback object, the posting will be suspended until the callback is executed. In this way, the
Post()
call can operate asynchronously, and so the callback parameter is used to synchronize with its operation; the callback will be called when all the listeners have responded to the post.If a
Post()
to this signal occurs while waiting for the response from a listener (either because a listener returned a Callback object and we are waiting for it to complete when thePost()
occurred, or because the listener itself called thePost()
method), the new message will be queued and will be posted after the current message has been sent to all the listeners, and they have all responded. This is another way in which posting can be asynchronous; the only sure way to know that a posting has occurred is through its callback. When the posting is complete, the callback is called, passing it the signal object that has just completed.Returns the callback object (or a blank callback object if none was provided).
Parameters:  message — the message to send through the signal
 callback — called after the message is posted
Returns: the callback or a blank callback

Clear
([callback]) This causes the history of past messages to be cleared so new listeners will not receive them. Note that since the signal may be operating asynchronously, the
Clear()
may be queued for later. In this way, thePost()
andClear()
operations will be performed in the proper order even when they are delayed. The callback is called when theClear()
operation is completed.Returns the callback (or a blank callback if none is provided).
Parameters:  callback — called after the signal history is cleared
Returns: the callback or a blank callback

Interest
(callback[, ignorePast])¶ This method registers a new listener on the signal. It creates a Callback object from the callback specification, attaches it to the signal, and returns that Callback object. When new messages are posted to the signal, it runs the callback, passing it the message that was posted. If the callback itself returns a Callback object, that indicates that the listener has started an asynchronous operation and the poster should wait for that callback to complete before allowing new posts on the signal.
If ignorePast is
false
or not present, then beforeInterest()
returns, the callback will be called with all the past messages that have been sent to the signal.Parameters:  callback — called whenever a message is posted (past or present)
 ignorePast —
true
means ignore previous messages
Returns: the callback object

NoInterest
(callback)¶ This removes a listener from the signal so that no new messages will be sent to it. The callback should be the one returned by the original
Interest()
call that attached the listener to the signal in the first place. Once removed, the listener will no longer receive messages from the signal.Parameters:  callback — the listener to be removed from signal
Returns: null

MessageHook
(message, callback)¶ This creates a callback that is called whenever the signal posts the given message. This is a little easier than having to write a function that must check the message each time it is called. Although the message here is a string, if a message posted to the signal is an array, then only the first element of that array is used to match against the message. That way, if a message contains an identifier plus arguments, the hook will match the identifier and still get called with the complete set of arguments.
Returns the Callback object that was produced.
Parameters:  message — the message to look for from the signal
 callback — called when the message is posted
Returns: the callback object

ExecuteHook
(message)¶ Used internally to call the listeners when a particular message is posted to the signal.
Parameters:  message — the posted message
Returns: null
The MathJax.Localization Class¶
Beginning in version 2.2 of MathJax, all of MathJax’s messages, menus, dialog boxes, and so are are localizable (meaning they can be presented in languages other than English). This is accomplished through the MathJax.Localization object. This object stores the data about the available languages, and the selected language, together with the routines needed to obtain the translated strings for the messages used by MathJax, and the ones used to register translations with the system.
Localizable strings in MathJax are identified by a unique ID (a character string used to obtain the translation), and MathJax has functions that obtain the translated message associated with the ID. Some messages need values inserted into them (like file names, or TeX macro names), and MathJax can insert those values into the translated string automatically. The localization system has support for plural and number forms, which differ from language to language. These issues are described in more detail in the Localization Strings documentation.
A number of MathJax’s messaging functions handle localization of their
messages automatically. For example, the MathJax.Message.Set()
function and the TeX input jax’s Error()
function both will look
up localization strings automatically.
Because the localization data needs to be downloaded over the network, MathJax only loads this data when it is actually needed (many users will only see mathematical expressions and will never need an actual translated message string, so there is no need to waste time downloading the localization data for them). Since MathJax loads files asynchonously, there is a synchronization issue that you need to be aware of when using localized message strings. There are support routines to help make this easier (these are described in more detail below).
Finally, MathJax consists of a number of relatively separate components, and can be extended by thirdparty plugins, it is possible that there would be name collisions with the ID’s used to identify localizable strings. To make it easier to manage the string ID’s, and to break up the localization data into smaller chunks that can be loaded quickly when needed, MathJax breaks up the messages into domains, each with its own set of ID’s for the messages in that domain. Typically, a component (like the math menu, or the TeX input jax) has its own domain, so it can keep its message ID’s separate from other components.
Getting a Translated String¶
The basic means of obtaining the string to use for a message to display to the user is to call the _() method of the MathJax.Localization object, passing the string id and the English phrase. For example,
MathJax.Localization._("TC","Typsetting Complete");
would return the string for “Typesettings Complete” in the currently selected language. This can be facilitated by defining the function
var _ = function () {return MathJax.Localization._.apply(MathJax.Localization,arguments)}
so that you only need to use
_("TC","Typesetting Complete");
to obtain the translated string.
Both these examples take the translation from the default domain (the
_
domain), but most components will want to use their own
domain. For example, the TeX input jax uses the TeX
domain. To
request a translation from a specific domain, replace the ID with an
array consisting of the domain and ID. For example
MathJax.Localization._(["TeX","MissingBrace"],"Missing Close Brace");
would get the string associated with the ID MissingBrace
from the
TeX
domain in the current language. To make this easier, the TeX
input jax could define
var _ = function (id) {
return MathJax.Localization._.apply(MathJax.Localization,
[["TeX",id]].concat([].slice.call(arguments,1)));
};
which appends the TeX
domain automatically. With this definition,
you could use the simpler form
_("MissingBrace","Missing Close Brace");
to get the MissingBrace
message from the TeX
domain.
Parameter Substitution¶
Some messages may want to include values (like file names, or TeX
macro names) as part of their strings. The MathJax localization
system provides a means of including such values in the translated
strings. In addition to the ID and message strings, you pass the
values that need to be substituted into the message, and use the
special sequences %1
, %2
, etc. to indicate where they go
within the message. For example
MathJax.Localization._("NotFound","File %1 not found",filename)
would obtain the translation for “File %1 not found” and insert the filename at the location of %1 in the translated string.
There are also mechanisms of handling plural forms (which differ from language to language) and number forms. See the Localization Strings documentation for complete details.
HTML Snippets¶
MathJax allows you to encode HTML snippets using javascript data (see
the HTML snippets documentation for details),
and these often contain textual data that needs to be localized. You
can pass HTML snippets to the _()
function and a domain in which
the strings are to be looked up. You then use a localization string
(an array consisting of the ID and string, plus optional parameters to
be substituted into the string) in place of a normal string in the
HTML snippet. For example,
[
"Follow this link: ",
["a",{href:"http://www.mathjax.org"},[
["img",{src:"external.gif"}]
]]
]
could be localized as
MathJax.Localization._("myDomain",[
["FollowLink","Follow this link"],": ",
["a",{href:"http://www.mathjax.org"},[
["img",{src:"external.gif"}]
]]
])
where the FollowLink
ID is looked up in the myDomain
domain of
the current language.
See the HTML snippets section of the Localization Strings documentation for complete details.
Synchronization Issues¶
Because the translation data are stored in files that are loaded only
when they are needed, and since file loading in MathJax is
asynchronous, you need to take this loading process into account when
you use _()
to obtain a localized string. If this is the first
string obtained from the language, or the first one from the requested
domain, MathJax may have to load the data file or that language or
domain (or both). In that case, you need to be prepared to wait for
that file to load and retry obtaining the translation string.
The localization system provides you with two functions to make this
easier, but you do have to keep in mind that obtaining translation
strings may be an asynchronous action.
The first method is MathJax.Localization.loadDomain()
, which takes a
domain name and an optional callback, and forces MathJax to load the
language data for that domain (and the main language data file, if
needed), then calls the callback. In this way, the callback function
knows that the localization data that it needs will be available, and
it doesn’t have to worry about the possibility that _()
will start
a file loading operation. The loadDomain()
function returns the
callback object, which can be used in callback queues, for example, to
coordinate further actions.
For example, suppose you want to perform the check
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
alert("Your url must use the http protocol");
url = null;
}
and want to localize the error message. The naive approach would be
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
alert(_("BadProtocol","Your url must use the http protocol"));
url = null;
}
(provided you have defined _()
for your domain as described
above). The problem is that _()
might need to load the language
data for your message, and that causes _()
to throw a restart
error. That would cause an error message to appear on the javascript
console, and your alert would never occur. Instead, you want to make
sure that the localization data are available before calling _()
.
Suppose the domain for your message ID is myDomain
, then one way
to do this would be
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
MathJax.Localization.loadDomain("myDomain",function () {
alert(_("BadProtocol","Your url must use the http or https protocol"));
});
url = null;
}
This uses loadDomain
to force the myDomain
data to be loaded
before attemptin the _()
call, so you are sure the call will
succeed. If several localized string are needed, you may want to use
loadDomain
around the entire function:
MathJax.Localization.loadDomain("myDomain",function () {
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
alert(_("BadProtocol","Your url must use the http or https protocol"));
url = null;
}
if (url && !url.match(/\.js$/)) {
alert(_("BadType","Your url should refer to a javascript file"));
}
});
It is also possible to use loadDomain()
as part of a callback
queue:
MathJax.Callback.Queue(
MathJax.Localization.loadDomain("myDomain"),
function () {
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
alert(_("BadProtocol","Your url must use the http or https protocol"));
url = null;
}
}
);
Here the function will not be performed until after the myDomain
domain is loaded.
The second tool for synchronizing with the localization system is the
MathJax.Localization.Try()
function. This method takes a callback
specification (for example, a function, though it could be any valid
callback data) and runs the callback with error trapping. If the
callback throws a restart error (due to loading a localization data
file), Try()
will wait for that file to load, then rerun the
callback (and will continue to do so if there are additional file
loads).
Using this approach, you don’t have to worry about loading the domains
explicitly, as _()
will throw a restart error when one is needed,
and Try()
will catch it and restart after the load. For example,
MathJax.Localization.Try(function () {
if (!url.match(/^https?:/)) {
alert(_("BadProtocol","Your url must use the http or https protocol"));
url = null;
}
});
Note that, as with loadDomain()
, Try()
may return before the
callback has been run successfully, so you should consider this to be
an asynchronous function. You can use callbacks to synchronize with
other actions, if needed.
Also note that your function may be called multiple times before it
succeeds (if localization data needs to be loaded). So you need to
write the function in such a way that it doesn’t matter if it gets
partway through and fails. For example, you might not want to create
structures or modify values that affect what happens if the function
has to be rerun from the beginning when one of its _()
causes a
file load.
A number of functions in MathJax are able to accept localization
strings as their inputs, and these already take care of the
synchronization issues for you. For example,
MathJax.Message.Set()
can accept either a plain (untranslated)
string, or a localization string (array with ID, string, and
substitution parameters). It uses Try()
internally to make sure
your message is properly translated before posting it to the screen.
That means you don’t have to worry about that yourself when you use
MathJax.Message.Set()
, though you shoud be aware that the posting
of the message may be asynchronous, so the message might not be
visible when Set()
returns. Fortunately,
MathJax.Message.Clear()
coordinates with Set()
so that even if
you call Clear()
before the original message posts, MathJax won’t
get confused). Similarly, the TeX input jax’s Error()
function
handles the calling of _()
and its synchronization for you.
The Localization Data¶
The MathJax.Localization
object holds the data for the various
translations, as well as the service routines for adding to the
translations and retrieving translations.
Methods¶
The methods in MathJax.Localization
include:

_
(id, message[, arguments])¶ The function (described in detail above) that returns the translated string for a given id, substituting the given arguments as needed.
Parameters:  id — the ID of the message to translate, or an array
[domain,ID]
 message — the English phrase to use as fallback if there is no translation, or an HTML snippet to be localized
 arguments — values to be inserted into the translated string
Returns: the translated string or HTML snippet
 id — the ID of the message to translate, or an array

setLocale
(locale)¶ Sets the selected locale to the given one, e.g.
MathJax.Localization.setLocale("fr");
Parameters:  locale — the twocharacter identifier for the desired locale
Returns: null

addTranslation
(locale, domain, def)¶ Defines (or adds to) the translation data for the given locale and domain. The def is the definition to be merged with the current translation data (if it exists) or to be used as the complete definition (if not). The data format is described below.
Parameters:  locale — the twoletter identifier for the locale to update or create
 domain — the name of the domain to add or modify
 def — the definition of the domain (see below)
Returns: null

setCSS
(div)¶ Sets the CSS for the given div to reflect the needs of the locale. In particular, it sets the fontfamily, if needed, and the direction (for righttoleft languages).
Parameters:  div — the DOM element whose CSS is to be modified
Returns: the div

fontFamily
()¶ Get the
fontfamily
needed to display text in the selected language. Returnsnull
if no special font is required.

fontDirection
()¶ Get the
direction
needed to display text in the selected language. Returnsnull
if no special font is required.

plural
(n)¶ The method that returns the index into the list of plural texts for the value n. See the [CLDR rules](http://unicode.org/cldr/charts/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html) for more information. This calls the locale’s
plural()
method, if there is one, otherwise it defaults to the English version.

number
(n)¶ The method that returns the localized version of the number n. This calls the locale’s
number()
method, if there is one, otherwise it defaults to the English version.

loadDomain
(domain[, callback])¶ This causes MathJax to load the data file for the given domain in the current language, and calls the callback when that is complete. If the domain is already loaded, the callback is called immediately. This lets you synchronize actions that require localization with the loading of the needed data so that you are sure that the needed translations are available. See the section on synchonization above for details.
Parameters:  domain — the name of the domain to load
 callback — the callback object to be run after loading
Returns: the callback object (or a blank one if none specified)

Try
(fn)¶ This method runs the function fn with error trapping and if an asynchronous file load is performed (for loading localizaton data), reruns the function again after the file loads. This lets you synchronize actions that require localization with the loading of the needed data (see the section on synchronization above for details). Note that the function should be one that can be run multiple times, if needed. Also note that
Try()
can return before the fn has been completed, so you should consider fn to be running asynchronously (you can use callbacks to synchronize with other actions, if needed).Parameters:  fn — a callback specification for a function that uses localization data
Returns: null
Properties¶

locale
The currently selected locale, e.g.,
"fr"
. This is set by thesetLocale()
method, and should not be modified by hand.

directory
The URL for the localization data files. This can be overridden for individual languages or domains (see below). The default is
[MathJax]/localization
.

strings
This is the main data structure that holds the translation strings. It consists of an entry for each language that MathJax knows about, e.g., there would be an entry with key
fr
whose value is the data for the French translation. Initially, these simply reference the files that define the translation data, which MathJax will load when needed. After the file is loaded, they will contain the translation data as well. This is described in more detail below.
Translation Data¶
Each language has its own data in the MathJax.Localization.strings structure. This structure holds data about the translation, plus the translated strings for each domain.
A typical example might be
fr: {
menuTitle: "Fran\u00E7ais", // title used in language menu
version: "1.0",
directory: "[MathJax]/localization/fr", // optional
file: "fr.js", // optional (file contains the data below)
isLoaded: true, // set when loaded
fontFamily: "...", // optional
plural: function (n) {...}, // optional implementation of plural forms
number: function (n) {...}, // optional implementation of number forms
domains: {
"_": {
version: "1.0",
file: "http://somecompany.com/MathJax/localization/fr/hub.js", // optional (contains the rest of the data)
isLoaded: true,
strings: {
fnf: "File '%1' not found",
fl: "%1 %{plural:%1filefiles} loaded",
...
}
},
TeX: {
...
},
MathMenu: {
...
}
...
}
}
The fields have the following meanings:

menuTitle
The string used for the menu item in the language submenu (it should be in the language itself, not English).

version
The version of the translation data.

directory
An optional value that can be used to override the directory where the translation files for this language are stored. The default is to add the locale identifier to the end of
MathJax.Localization.directory
, so the value given in the example above is the default value, and could be omitted.

file
The name of the file containing the translation data for this language. The default is the locale identifier with
.js
appended, so the value given in the example above is the default value, and could be omitted.

isLoaded
This is set to
true
when MathJax has loaded the data for this language. Typically, when a language is registered with MathJax, the data file isn’t loaded at that point. It will be loaded when it is first needed, and when that happens, this value is set.

fontFamily
This is a CSS fontfamily (or list of fontfamilies) that should be used when text in this language is displayed. If not present, then no special font is needed.

fontDirection
This is a string
ltr
orrtl
that specifies if the language is lefttoright or righttoleft. If not present,ltr
will be assumed.

plural(n)
This is an optional function that returns the index into the list of plural values apropriate for the given integer n. If not provided, the English
plural()
function is used.

plural(n)
This is an optional function that returns the index into the list of plural values apropriate for the given integer n. If not provided, the English
plural()
function is used.

number(n)
This is an optional function that returns the a string representing the decimal number n in the format used by the given locale. If not provided, the English
number()
function is used.

domains
This is an object that contains the translation strings for this language, grouped by domain. Each domain has an entry, and its value is an object that contains the translation strings for that domain. The format is described in more detail below.
Domain Data¶
Each domain for which there are translations has an entry in the locale’s domains object. These store the following information:

version
The version of the data for this domain.

file
If the domain data is stored in a separate file from the rest of the language’s data (e.g., a thirdparty extension that is not stored on the CDN may have translation data that is provied by the thridparty), this property tells where to obtain the translation data. In the example above, the data is provided by another company via a complete URL. The default value is the locale’s directory with the domain name appended and .js appended to that.

isLoaded
This is set to
true
when the data file has been loaded.

strings
This is an object that contains that actual translated strings. The keys are the message identifiers described in the overview section above, and the values are the translations
Registering a Translation¶
Typically, for languages stored on the CDN, MathJax will register the language with a call like
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("fr",null,{});
which will create an fr
entry in the localization data that will
be tied to the [MathJax]/localization/fr
directory, and the
[MathJax]/localization/fr/fr.js
file. That directory could contain
individual files for the various domains, or the fr.js
file itself
could contain combined data that includes the most common domains,
leaving only the lesserused domains in separate files.
An example fr.js
file could be
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("fr",null,{
menuTitle: "Fran\u00E7ais",
version: "1.0",
domains: {
"_": {},
TeX: {},
MathMenu: {}
}
});
This would declare that there are translation files for the _
,
TeX
, and MathMenu
domains, and that these will be loaded
individually from their default file names in the default directory of
[MathJax]/localization/fr
. Other domains will not be translated
unless they register themselves via a command like
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("fr","HelpDialog",{});
in which case the domain’s data file will be loaded automatically when needed.
One could preload translation strings by including them in the fr.js
file:
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("fr",null,{
menuTitle: "Fran\u00E7ais",
version: "1.0",
domains: {
"_": {
isLoaded: true,
strings: {
'NotFound': "Fichier `%1` non trouvé",
...
}
},
TeX: {
isLoaded: true,
strings: {
'MissingBrace': "Accolade de fermeture manquante",
...
}
},
MathMenu: {}
}
});
Here the _
and TeX
strings are preloaded, while the MathMenu
strings will
be loaded on demand.
A third party extension could include
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("fr","myExtension",{
file: "http://myserver.com/MathJax/localization/myExtension/fr.js"
});
to add French translations for the myExtension
domain (used by the
extension) so that they would be obtained from the thirdparty server
when needed.
A third party could provide a translation for a language not covered by the MathJax CDN by using
MathJax.Localization.addTranslation("kr",null,{
menuTitle: "\uD55C\uAD6D\uB9D0",
fontFamily: "Butang, 'Arial unicode MS', AppleMayungjo",
directory: "http://mycompany.com/MathJax/localization/kr"
});
and providing a kr.js
file in their MathJax/localization/kr
directory that defines the details of their translation. If the
Korean (kr) locale is selected, MathJax will load
http://mycompany.com/MathJax/localization/kr/kr.js
and any other
domain files when they are needed.
See the subdirectories in the MathJax/localization
directory for
examples of language files. The English directory (en) is not
actually used by MathJax (because the English strings a built in), but
it can serve as an example and starting point for producing your own
translations.
The Translation Files¶
Version 2.2 of MathJax comes with translations for French and German. Additional languages will be made available as they are developed. We hope to use communitybased websites like Transifex to help produce these translations. Currently, however, the language data files are not in a form that can be used by these sites, so the only way to generate new translations is to copy the English data files and modify them for the new language.
In the future, MathJax will provide conversion programs that create the files needed for such sites in the formats they require (e.g., YAML), and that convert the translated versions back into the data files needed by MathJax, but these programs are not yet ready.
In addition, there will be a program that scans the MathJax files to obtain the ID’s and English strings that are needed for the translation files. This will make maintenance of language files easier in the future, but these are not available yet.
The MathJax.InputJax Class¶
Input jax are the components of MathJax that translate mathematics from its original format (like TeX or MathML) to the MathJax internal format (an element jax).
An input jax is stored as a pair of files in a subdirectory of the
jax/input
directory, with the subdirectory name being the name of
the input jax. For example, the TeX input jax is stored in
jax/input/TeX. The first file, config.js
, is loaded when
MathJax is being loaded and configured, and is indicated by listing
the input jax directory in the jax array of the MathJax
configuration. The config.js
file creates a subclass of the
MathJax.InputJax object for the new input jax and registers that
with MathJax, along with the MIMEtype that will be used to indicate
the mathematics that is to be processed by the input jax.
The main body of the input jax is stored in the second file,
jax.js
, which is loaded when the input jax is first called on to
translate some mathematics. This file augments the original input jax
subclass with the additional methods needed to do the translation.
MathJax calls the input jax’s Translate()
method when it needs
the input jax to translate the contents of a math <script>
tag.
The MathJax.InputJax class is a subclass of the MathJax Jax class, and inherits the properties and methods of that class. Those listed below are the additional or overridden ones from that class.
Properties¶

id
The name of the jax.

version
The version number of the jax.

directory
The directory where the jax files are stored (e.g.,
"[MathJax]/jax/input/TeX"
).

elementJax
The name of the ElementJax class that this input jax will produce (typically
mml
, as that is the only ElementJax at the moment).
Methods¶

Process
(script, state) This is the method that the
MathJax.Hub
calls when it needs the input jax to process the given math<script>
. Its default action is to do the following: Start loading any element jax specified in the
elementJax
array;  Start loading the jax’s
jax.js
file;  Start loading the required output jax (so it is ready when needed); and
 Redefine itself to simply return the callback for the load operation (so that further calls to it will cause the processing to wait for the callback).
Once the
jax.js
file has loaded, this method is replaced by the jax’sTranslate()
method (see below), so that subsequent calls toProcess()
will perform the appropriate translation.Parameters:  script — reference to the DOM
<script>
object for the mathematics to be translated  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics (internal use)
Returns: an ElementJax object, or
null
 Start loading any element jax specified in the

Translate
(script, state) This is the main routine called by MathJax when a
<script>
of the appropriate type is found. The defaultTranslate()
method throws an error indicating thatTranslate()
hasn’t been defined, so when thejax.js
file loads, it should override the defaultTranslate()
with its own version that does the actual translation.The translation process should include the creation of an Element Jax that stores the data needed for this element.
Parameters:  script — the
<script>
element to be translated  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics (internal use)
Returns: the element jax resulting from the translation
 script — the

Register
(mimetype) This registers the MIMEtype associated with this input jax so that MathJax knows to call this input jax when it sees a
<script>
of that type. An input jax can register more than one type, but it will be responsible for distinguishing elements of the various types from one another.Parameters:  mimetype — the MIMEtype of the input this jax processes
Returns: null

needsUpdate
(jax) This implements the element jax’s
needsUpdate()
method, and returnstrue
if thejax
needs to be rerendered (i.e., the text has changed), andfalse
otherwise.Perameters:  jax — the element jax to be checked
Returns: true
if the jax’s text has changed,false
otherwise
The MathJax.OutputJax Class¶
Output jax are the components of MathJax that translate mathematics from the MathJax internal format (an element jax) to whatever output is required to represent the mathematics (e.g., MathML elements, or HTMLwithCSS that formats the mathematics on screen).
An output jax is stored as a pair of files in a subdirectory of the
the jax/output
directory, with the subdirectory name being the
name of the output jax. For example, the NativeMML output jax is
stored in jax/output/NativeMML. The first file, config.js
, is
loaded when MathJax is being loaded and configured, and is indicated
by listing the input jax directory in the jax array of the MathJax
configuration. The config.js
file creates a subclass of the
MathJax.OutputJax object for the new output jax and registers it
with MathJax, along with the MIMEtype of the element jax that it can
process.
The main body of the output jax is stored in the second file, jax.js
,
which is loaded when the output jax is first called on to translate
some mathematics. This file augments the original output jax
subclass with the additional methods needed to produce the output.
MathJax calls the input jax’s Translate()
method when it needs
the output jax to translate an element jax to produce output.
The MathJax.OutputJax class is a subclass of the MathJax Jax class, and inherits the properties and methods of that class. Those listed below are the additional or overridden ones from that class.
Properties¶

id
The name of the jax.

version
The version number of the jax.

directory
The directory where the jax files are stored (e.g.,
"[MathJax]/jax/output/HTMLCSS"
);

fontDir
The directory where the fonts are stored (e.g.,
"[MathJax]/fonts"
)

imageDir
The directory where MathJax images are found (e.g.
"[MathJax]/images"
)
Methods¶

preProcess
(state)¶ This is called by
MathJax.Hub
to ask the output processor to prepare to process math scripts. Its default action is to start loading the jax’sjax.js
file, and redefine itself to simply return the callback for the load operation (so that further calls to it will cause the processing to wait for the callback).Once the
jax.js
file has loaded, this method is replaced by the jax’spreTranslate()
method, so that subsequent calls topreProcess()
will perform the appropriate translation.Parameters:  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics
Returns: null

preTranslate
(state)¶ This routine replaces
preProcess()
above when the jax’sjax.js
file is loaded. It is called byMathJax.Hub
to ask the output processor to prepare to process math scripts. (For example, the HTMLCSS output jax uses this to determine emsizes for all the mathematics at once, to minimize page reflows that slow down Internet Explorer.)The routine can use
state.jax[this.id]
to obtain the array of element jax that are to be processed. The output jax can use thestate
variable to maintain its own state information, but any properties that it adds to the variable should have a prefix that is the output jax’s ID. For example, the HTMLCSS output jax might usestate.HTMLCSSlast
to keep track of the last equation it processed, or could addstate.HTMLCSS = {...}
to create an object of its own within the state variable.Parameters:  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics
Returns: null

Translate
(script, state) This is the main routine called by MathJax when an element jax is to be converted to output. The default
Translate()
method throws an error indicating thatTranslate()
hasn’t been defined, so when thejax.js
file loads, it should override the defaultTranslate()
with its own version that does the actual translation.You should use
MathJax.Hub.getJaxFor(script)
to obtain the element jax for the given script. The translation process may modify the element jax (e.g., if it has data that needs to be stored with the jax), and may insert DOM elements into the document near the jax’s<script>
tag. The output jax can use thestate
variable to maintain information about its processing state, but seepreTranslate()
above for naming conventions for properties that are added.Parameters:  script — the
<script>
element to be translated  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics
Returns: the element jax resulting from the translation
 script — the

postTranslate
(state)¶ This routines is called by
MathJax.Hub
when the translation of math elements is complete, and can be used by the output processor to finalize any actions that it needs to complete. (For example, making the mathematics visible, or forcing a reflow of the page.)The routine can use
state.jax[this.id]
to obtain the array of element jax that were processed, or can use thestate
variable to store its own state information (seepreProcess()
above for caveats about naming properties).Parameters:  state — a structure containing information about the current proccessing state of the mathematics
Returns: null

Register
(mimetype) This registers the MIMEtype for the element jax associated with this output jax so that MathJax knows to call this jax when it wants to display an element jax of that type. Several output jax may register for the same input jax, in which case the first one to register will be the default one for that type.
Parameters:  mimetype — the MIMEtype of the input this jax processes
Returns: null

Remove
(jax) Removes the output associated with the given element jax. The routine can use
jax.SourceElement()
to locate the<script>
tag associated with the element jax.Parameters:  jax — the element jax whose display should be removed
Returns: null
If an output jax wants its output to handle the contextual menu item and zooming, then it needs to tie into the eventhandling code (MathEvents) and the zoomhandling code (MathZoom). That requires the following methods.

getJaxFromMath
(math)¶ This is called by the eventhandling code (MathEvents) to get the element jax associated with the DOM element that caused an event to occur. The output jax will have attached event handlers to some DOM element that is part of its output, and the MathEvents code uses this routine to map back to the jax associated with that output.
Parameters:  math — a DOM element that triggered a DOM event (e.g., a mouse click)
Returns: the ElementJax structure associated with the DOM element

Zoom
(jax, span, math, Mw, Mh)¶ This routine is called by the zoomhandling code (MathZoom) when an expression has received its zoom trigger event (e.g., a doubleclick). The
jax
is the math that needs to be zoomed,span
is a<span>
element in which the zoomed version of the math should be placed,math
is the DOM element that received the zoom trigger event, andMw
andMh
are the maximum width and height allowed for the zoom box (thespan
).The return value is an object with the following properties:
Y
— the vertical offset from the top of thespan
to the baseline of the mathematicsmW
— the width of the original mathematics elementmH
— the height of the original mathematics elementzW
— the width of the zoomed mathzH
— the height of the zoomed math
All of these values are in pixels.
Parameters:  jax — the jax to be zoomed
 span — the
<span>
in which to place the zoomed math  math — the DOM element generating the zoom event
 Mw — the maximum width of the zoom box
 Mh — the maximum height of the zoom box
Returns: a structure as described above
The MathJax.ElementJax Class¶
The element jax is the bridge between the input and output jax, and
contains the data produced by the input jax needed by the output jax
to display the results. It is tied to the individual <script>
tag
that produced it, and is the object used by JavaScript programs to
interact with the mathematics on the page.
An element jax is stored in the jax.js
file in a subdirectory of
the jax/element
directory, with the subdirectory name being the
name of the element jax. Currently, there is only one element jax
class, the mml element jax, and it is stored in jax/element/mml
.
The MathJax.ElementJax class is a subclass of the MathJax Jax class, and inherits the properties and methods of that class. Those listed below are the additional or overridden ones from that class.
Class Properties¶

id
The name of the jax.

version
The version number of the jax.

directory
The directory where the jax files are stored (e.g.,
"[MathJax]/jax/element/mml"
).
Instance Properties¶

inputJax
The name of the input jax that created the element.

outputJax
The name of the output jax that has processed this element.

inputID
The DOM id of the
<script>
tag that generated this element (if it doesn’t have one initially, the MathJax hub will supply one). Note that this is not a reference to the element itself; that element will have a reference to this element jax, and if inputID were a reference back, that would cause a reference loop, which some browsers would not free properly during trash collection, thus causing a memory leak.

originalText
A string indicating the original input text that was processed for this element. (In the future, this may be managed by the input jax rather than
MathJax.Hub
.)

mimeType
The MIMEtype of the element jax (jax/mml in the case of an mml element jax).
Other data specific to the element jax subclass may also appear here.
Methods¶

Text
(text[, callback])¶ Sets the input text for this element to the given text and reprocesses the mathematics. (I.e., updates the equation to the new one given by text). When the processing is complete, the callback, if any, is called.
Parameters:  text — the new mathematics source string for the element
 callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Rerender
([callback]) Removes the output and produces it again (for example, if CSS has changed that would alter the spacing of the mathematics). Note that the internal representation isn’t regenerated; only the output is. The callback, if any, is called when the process completes.
Parameters:  callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Reprocess
([callback]) Removes the output and then retranslates the input into the internal form and reredners the output again. The callback, if any, is called when the process completes.
Parameters:  callback — the callback specification
Returns: the callback object

Remove
() Removes the output for this element from the web page (but does not remove the original
<script>
). The<script>
will be considered unprocessed, and the next call toMathJax.hub.Typeset()
will redisplay it.Returns: null

SourceElement
()¶ Returns a reference to the original
<script>
DOM element associated to this element jax.Returns: the <script>
element

needsUpdate
()¶ Indicates whether the mathematics has changed so that its output needs to be updated.
Returns: true
if the mathematics needs to be reprocessed,false
otherwise
Output jax may add new methods to the base element jax class to
perform exporting to other formats. For example, a MathML output jax
could add toMathML()
, or an accessibility output jax could add
toAudible()
. These could be made available via the MathJax
contextual menu.
The Base Jax Class¶
The MathJax.InputJax, MathJax.OutputJax and MathJax.ElementJax classes are all subclasses of the base Jax class in MathJax. This is a private class that implements the methods common to all three other jax classes.
Unlike most MathJax.Object classes, calling the class object creates a subclass of the class, rather than an instance of the class. E.g.,
MathJax.InputJax.MyInputJax = MathJax.InputJax({
id: "MyInputJax",
version: "1.0",
...
});
creates MathJax.InputJax.MyInputJax
as a subclass of MathJax.InputJax
.
Class Properties¶

directory
The name of the jax directory (usually
"[MathJax]/jax"
). Overridden in the subclass to be the specific directory for the class, e.g."[MathJax]/jax/input"
.

extensionDir
The name of the extensions directory (usually
"[MathJax]/extensions"
).
Instance Properties¶

id
The name of the jax.

version
The version number of the jax.

directory
The directory for the jax (e.g.,
"[MathJax]/jax/input/TeX"
).

require: null
An array of files to load before the
jax.js
file calls theMathJax.Ajax.loadComplete()
method.

config: {}
An object that contains the default configuration options for the jax. These can be modified by the author by including a configuration subsection for the specific jax in question.

JAXFILE: "jax.js"
The name of the file that contains the main code for the jax.
Methods¶

Translate
(script)¶ This is a stub for a routine that should be defined by the jax’s
jax.js
file when it is loaded. It should perform the translation action for the specific jax. For an input jax, it should return the ElementJax object that it created. TheTranslate()
method is never called directly by MathJax; during theloadComplete()
call, this function is copied to theProcess()
method, and is called via that name. The defaultTranslate()
method throws an error indicating that theTranslate()
method was not redefined. That way, if thejax.js
file fails to load for some reason, you will receive an error trying to process mathematics with this jax.Parameters:  script — reference to the DOM
<script>
object for the mathematics to be translated
Returns: an ElementJax object, or
null
 script — reference to the DOM

Register
(mimetype)¶ This method is overridden in the InputJax, OutputJax and ElementJax subclasses to handle the registration of those classes of jax.
Parameters:  mimetype — the MIMEtype to be associated with the jax
Returns: null

Config
() Inserts the configuration block for this jax from the author’s configuration specification into the jax’s
config
property. If the configuration includes anAugment
object, that is used to augment the jax (that is, the configuration can override the methods of the object, as well as the data). This is called automatically during the loading of thejax.js
file.

Startup
()¶ This is a method that can be overridden in the subclasses to perform initialization at startup time (after the configuration has occurred).

loadComplete
(file) This is called by the
config.js
andjax.js
files when they are completely loaded and are ready to signal that fact to MathJax. Forconfig.js
, this simply calls theMathJax.Ajax.loadComplete()
method for theconfig.js
file. Forjax.js
, the actions performed here are the following: Post the “[name] Jax Config” message to the startup signal.
 Perform the jax’s
Config()
method.  Post the “[name] Jax Require” message to the startup signal.
 Load the files from the jax’s
require
andconfig.extensions
arrays.  Post the “[name] Jax Startup” message to the startup signal.
 Perform the jax’s
Startup()
method.  Post the “[name] Jax Ready” message to the startup signal.
 Copy the
preTranslate
,Translate
, andpostTranslate
functions topreProcess
,Process
, andpostProcess
.  Perform the
MathJax.Ajax.loadComplete()
call for thejax.js
file.
Note that the configuration process (the
Config()
call) can modify therequire
orconfig.extensions
arrays to add more files that need to be loaded, and that theStartup()
method isn’t called until those files are completely loaded.
The MathJax ObjectOriented Programming Model¶
MathJax uses an objectoriented programming model for its main components, such as the Input jax, Output jax, and Element jax. The model is intended to be lightweight and is based on JavaScript’s prototype inheritance mechanism. Object classes are created by making subclasses of MathJax.Object or one of its subclasses, and are instantiated by calling the object class as you would a function.
For example:
MathJax.Object.Foo = MathJax.Object.Subclass({
Init: function (x) {this.setX(x)},
getX: function () {return this.x},
setX: function (x) {this.x = x}
});
var foo = MathJax.Object.Foo("bar");
foo.getX(); // returns "bar"
foo.setX("foobar");
foo.getX(); // returns "foobar"
Object classes can have static properties and methods, which are
accessed via the object class variable. E.g.,
MathJax.Object.Foo.SUPER
or MathJax.Object.Foo.Augment()
for
the object in the example above. Static values are not inherited by
subclasses.
Static Properties¶

SUPER
Pointer to the super class for this subclass. (It is a reference to MathJax.Object in the example above.)
Static Methods¶

Subclass
(def[, static])¶ Creates a subclass of the given class using the contents of the def object to define new methods and properties of the object class, and the contents of the optional static object to define new static methods and properties.
Parameters:  def — object that defines the properties and methods
 static — object that defines static properties and methods
Returns: the new object class

Augment
(def[, static])¶ Adds new properties and methods to the class prototype. All instances of the object already in existence will receive the new properties and methods automatically.
Parameters:  def — object that defines the properties and methods
 static — object that defines static properties and methods
Returns: the object class itself
Properties¶

constructor
Pointer to the constructor function for this class. E.g.,
foo.constructor
would be a reference toMathJax.Object.Foo
in the example above.
Methods¶

Init
([data])¶ An optional function that is called when an instance of the class is created. When called, the this variable is set to the newly instantiated object, and the data is whatever was passed to the object constructor. For instance, in the example above, the variable
foo
is created by callingMathJax.Object.Foo("bar")
, which calls theMathJax.Object.Foo
object’sInit()
method with data equal to"bar"
. If desired, theInit()
method can create a different object, and return that, in which case this becomes the return value for the object constructor.Parameters:  data — the data from the constructor call
Returns: null
or the object to be returned by the constructor

isa
(class)¶ Returns
true
if the object is an instance of the given class, or of a subclass of the given class, andfalse
otherwise. So using thefoo
value defined above,foo.isa(MathJax.Object); // returns true foo.isa(MathJax.Object.Foo); // returns true foo.isa(MathJax.InputJax); // returns false

can
(method)¶ Checks if the object has the given method and returns
true
if so, otherwise returnsfalse
. This allows you to test if an object has a particular function available before trying to call it (i.e., if an object implements a particular feature). For example:foo.can("getX"); // returns true foo.can("bar"); // returns false

has
(property)¶ Checks if the object has the given property and returns
true
if so, otherwise returnsfalse
. This allows you to test if an object has a particular property available before trying to use it. For example:foo.has("getX"); // returns true foo.has("x"); // returns true foo.has("bar"); // returns false
Accessing the Super Class¶
If a subclass overrides a method of its parent class, it may want to
call the original function as part of its replacement method. The
semantics for this are a bit awkward, but work efficiently. Within a
method, the value arguments.callee.SUPER
refers to the super
class, so you can access any method of the superclass using that. In
order to have this refer to the current object when you call the
super class, however, you need to use call()
or
apply()
to access the given method.
For example, arguments.callee.SUPER.method.call(this,data)
would
call the superclass’ method and pass it data as its argument,
properly passing the current object as this. Alternatively, you can
use this.SUPER(arguments)
in place of arguments.callee.SUPER
.
It is also possible to refer to the super class explicitly rather than
through arguments.callee.SUPER
, as in the following example:
MathJax.Class1 = MathJax.Object.Subclass({
Init: function(x) {this.x = x},
XandY: function(y) {return "Class1: x and y = " + this.x + " and " + y}
});
MathJax.Class2 = MathJax.Class1.Subclass({
XandY: function (y) {return "Class2: "+arguments.callee.SUPER.XandY.call(this,y)}
});
MathJax.Class3 = MathJax.Class2.Subclass({
XandY: function (y) {return "Class3: "+MathJax.Class2.prototype.XandY.call(this,y)}
});
MathJax.Class4 = MathJax.Class1.Subclass({
XandY: function (y) {return "Class4: "+this.SUPER(arguments).XandY.call(this,y)}
});
var foo = MathJax.Class2("foo");
foo.XandY("bar"); // returns "Class2: Class1: x and y = foo and bar"
var bar = MathJax.Class3("bar");
bar.XandY("foo"); // returns "Class3: Class2: Class1: x and y = bar and foo"
var moo = MathJax.Class4("moo");
moo.XandY("cow"); // returns "Class4: Class1: x and y = moo and cow"
Since both of these mechanisms are rather awkward, MathJax provides an alternative syntax that is easier on the programmer, but at the cost of some inefficiency in creating the subclass and in calling methods that access the super class.
Since most calls to the super class are to the overridden method, not
to some other method, the method name and the call()
are
essentially redundant. You can get a more convenient syntax by
wrapping the def for the Subclass()
call in a call to
MathJax.Object.SimpleSUPER()
, as in the following example:
MathJax.Class1 = MathJax.Object.Subclass({
Init: function (x) {this.x = x},
XandY: function (y) {return "Class1: x and y = " + this.x + " and " + y}
});
MathJax.Class2 = MathJax.Class1.Subclass(
MathJax.Object.SimpleSUPER({
XandY: function (y) {return "Class2: "+this.SUPER(y)},
AnotherMethod: function () {return this.x} // it's OK if a method doesn't use SUPER
})
);
var foo = MathJax.Class2("foo");
foo.XandY("bar"); // returns "Class2: Class1: x and y = foo and bar"
Accessibility Features¶
MathJax’s mission is to provide the best tools for mathematics on the web. Naturally, this means for everyone and thus accessibility is an important concern for us.
MathJax User Interface¶
The MathJax user interface consists of the MathJax Menu and the various MathJax Processing Messages, cf the core configuration.
The user interface is localized to over 20 languages and many more partial localizations thanks to the fantastic support of the community at TranslateWiki.net.
The MathJax Menu also follows WCAG 2.0 guidelines. Each MathJax fragment is included in the tab order; the menu can be triggered via the space or menu key; and navigation in the menu is possible using the arrow keys.
MathJax Accessibility Extensions¶
The MathJax Accessibility extensions provide several tools and features that enable universal rendering of mathematics on the web. They enhance rendering both visually and aurally. In particular:
 An innovative responsive rendering of mathematical content through collapsing and exploration of subexpressions.
 An aural rendering tool providing onthefly speechtext for mathematical content and its subexpressions using various rule sets.
 An exploration tool, allowing for meaningful exploration of mathematical content including multiple highlighting features and synchronized aural rendering.
The Accessibility Extensions support the widest selection of browsers, operating systems, and assistive technologies as they only require the use of wellsupported web standards such as WAIARIA, in particular labels and live regions.
Note
We strongly suggest that you use the MathJax Accessibility extensions to provide the best possible experience for all users.
Legacy Support via AssistiveMML.js¶
Some screen readers support MathML, MathJax’s internal format. Screenreaders like ChromeVox, JAWS (on IE), and Texthelp support MathJax directly while other screenreaders can benefit from the AssistiveMML extension.
The AssistiveMML
extension embeds visually hidden MathML alongside
MathJax’s visual rendering while hiding the visual rendering from
assistive technology (AT) such as screenreaders. This allows most
MathMLenabled screenreaders to read out the underlying
mathematics. It’s important to note that Presentation MathML is
usually not expressive enough to voice the mathematics properly in all
circumstances, which is why screenreaders have to rely on heuristics
to analyze the MathML semantically.
The quality of MathML support in screenreaders varies greatly, with different levels of MathML feature support, different speech rule sets, and different voicing technologies.
The expected result for MathJax given the current state of technology is roughly the following:
 The visuallyhidden MathML is read out correctly by AT (i.e., not
just the character strings but, e.g.,
<mfrac>
leads to “fraction”; this will vary with the MathML support of the screenreader).  The visual rendering is not read out by AT
 The MathJax Menu triggers AT to say “clickable” before each math element.
 This allows keyboard users to enter the MathJax Menu via space or menu key.
 The visually hidden MathML does not get an outline (usually placed
at an odd location due to the target of the outline being visually
hidden).
 except in iOS VoiceOver, where this allows the user to hook into VoiceOver’s exploration features.
Support Matrix (AssistiveMML.js)¶
Below is a summary of results for MathML enabled screenreaders and the legacy AssistiveMML extension, based on tests as well as user reports.
Screenreader  Browser  OS  Usable?  Bugs 

ChromeVox  Chrome  any  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  any  WinXP  DNA  MathPlayer 4 does not support WinXP 
NVDA  Chrome  any  DNA  Chrome issues prevent MathML support by NVDA 
NVDA  Firefox  Win7  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  Firefox  Win8.1  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  Firefox  Win10  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  MS Edge  Win10  DNA  Edge issues prevent MathML support by NVDA 
NVDA  IE11  Win8.1  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  IE10  Win7  +1  no bugs 
NVDA  IE9  Win7  +1  no bugs 
JAWS  any  WinXP  DNA 